Link to the Geography Discipline Network Home Page.

Providing Learning Support for Disabled Students in Higher Education, with particular reference to Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences

A Selective Annotated Bibliography

Debra Marshall, Claire Cottingham, Mick Healey and Phil Gravestock

At this stage the bibliography is inevitably partial and readers are invited to let us know of missing references. The intention is to add other references as they are published and we would welcome you alerting us to new literature. Please send details of references we have missed to Phil Gravestock.

  1. General - Books and Articles
  2. General - Other Useful Resources
  3. Mobility Impairments
  4. Blind or Visually Impaired
  5. Blind or Visually Impaired - Other Useful References
  6. Deaf or Hearing Impaired
  7. Hidden Disabilities
  8. Dyslexia - Books and Articles
  9. Dyslexia - Other Useful References
  10. Mental Health Difficulties
  11. Multiple Disabilities
  12. Multiple Disabilities - Other Useful References

1. General - Books and Articles

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AHEAD (undated) Accessing Third level Education in Ireland: A handbook for students with disabilities. Available from http://www.ahead.ie/hb/hb.html (accessed 23/7/01)

The handbook covers a range of issues confronting disabled students and their lecturers from admission to graduation. Specific disabilities covered include physical disabilities; blind and partially sighted; deaf or hard of hearing; hidden disabilities; and mental health difficulties.

Keywords: physical disabilities, blind, partially sighted, deaf, hard of hearing, hidden disabilities, mental health difficulties.

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ANDERSON, C.A. (undated) Claiming Disability in the Field of Geography: Access, Recognition and Integration (geogable@lsv.uky.edu).

This paper examines the roles that disability and persons with disabilities play within the field of geography. It is concerned with physical access but also with an examination of the institutional means by which geography departments, publications and conferences have worked and can work to challenge ableism: the neglect of disabled people's lives and perspectives.

Keywords: roles, institutional means, ableism.

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AUNE, B. (1998) Higher education and disability in the United States of America: the context, a comprehensive model, and current issues, in Hurst, A. (1998) (ed.) Higher Education and Disabilities: International Approaches, 17, pp.183-203 (Aldershot, Ashgate).

This chapter provides an overview of the educational system in the United States: changing perspectives of disability; disability services at the secondary and post-secondary level; an example of how one university has structured its disability services; and unresolved issues concerning disability in American higher education.

Keywords: access, disclosure, interactional model, national context, policy, provision.

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COOPER, J. (2000) Law, Rights and Disability (Jessica Kingsley Publishers).

Publisher's Note: This is an up-to-date discussion of all aspects of the law as it applies to disability. It provides information on: legal definitions of disability; rights and entitlements to housing, education, social security and services for children; and the social model of disability.

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CUSHING, L.S. & KENNEDY, C.H. (1997) Academic effects of providing peer support in general education classrooms on students without disabilities, Journal of Applied Behaviour Analysis, 30(1), pp.139-151.

The academic effects on peers without disabilities of serving as peer supports for students with disabilities are described in this paper.

Keywords: peer supports, inclusive education, students with severe disabilities.

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DISABILITY AND GEOGRAPHY RESOURCE is available at http://www.swansea.ac.uk/disability/dagin

This resource contains an A-Z of articles on disability.

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EQUIP RESOURCE DIRECTORY available from http://www.natdisteam.ac.uk/equipsite/eQuipHome.htm

This resource directory aims to help institutions maximise the gains from earlier initiatives to improve provision for disabled students. It describes both the expertise and the products available from previous HEFCE-funded projects and provides contact details for further information. HEFCE. Improving provision for students with disabilities: funded projects (Strand two projects: promotion and transfer) (http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Initiat/SLDD/strand2.htm) is part of this directory.

Keywords: directory, initiatives, HEFCE, products, expertise.

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FOSKETT, N. & MARSDEN, B. (1998) A Bibliography of Geographical Education 1970 - 1997 (Sheffield, Geographical Association).

This is a bibliography of geographical education publications between 1970 and 1997. The bibliography is split into five parts, (a) geography and education, (b) geography in the curriculum that includes a series of publications on fieldwork and outdoor education in general and through the different levels in education, (c) geographical education in the social context, (d) environmental education and (e) geographical and environmental education in other countries.

Keywords: Geography, education, fieldwork, bibliography.

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GLEESON, B. J. (1996) A Geography for Disabled People? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21, pp.387-396.

A comment on Golledge, R. (1993) Geography and the disabled: a survey with special reference to vision impaired and blind populations, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18(1), pp.63-85.

This paper engages with Golledge's positivistic appreciation of disablement by arguing that disability is a form of oppression which is socio-spatially produced rather than naturally given.

Keywords: disability, disabled people, historical-geographical materialism, Marxist Geography, socio-spatial ontology, social oppression.

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GLEESON, B. (1999) Geographies of Disability (London, Routledge).

This book examines how geography shapes the experiences of disabled people, exploring the relationship between space and disability; how space, place and issues such as mobility inform the experiences of disabled people. In Part I a critical appraisal of theorectical positions is used to develop a disability model; Part II uses case studies to give a historical perspective on how the transition to capitalism affected the everyday lives of disabled people, and Part III explores contemporary scenarios of disability.

Keywords: disabled people, embodiment, social policy, space.

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GOLLEDGE, R. (1993) Geography and the disabled: a survey with special reference to vision impaired and blind populations, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18(1), pp.63-85.

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GOLLEDGE, R. (1996) A response to Gleeson and Imrie, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21, pp.404-411.

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GRAVESTOCK, P. & HEALEY, M. (2001) Providing Learning Support for Disabled Students Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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HALL J. & TINKLIN, T. (1998) Students First: The Experiences of Disabled Students in Higher Education, pp.1-90, Appendix1/1 - 2/2, (SCRE).

This report is a set of stories about the experiences of disabled students in higher education institutions in Scotland. It covers students' experiences of application and entry; academic arrangements for disabled students; students' relationships which their institutions; access, mobility and transport issues; types of support available; social life and accommodation; students' future aspirations and an institutional perspective on provision for disabled students drawn from the views of the staff interviewed.

Keywords: higher education experiences, institutional perspectives, support.

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HALL, T., HEALEY, M. & HARRISON, M. (2002) Fieldwork and disabled students: discourses of exclusion and inclusion, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 27(2), pp.213-231.

Disabled students form a significant but under represented minority in higher education in the UK. Participation appears to be particularly low in disciplines that contain a fieldwork component. Fieldwork has been recognized as a barrier to the participation of disabled students. This paper emphasizes a critical perspective on fieldwork, highlighting the way in which fieldcourses as currently conceived, enacted and experienced, can exclude disabled students. It discusses a survey of the experiences of providing learning support to disabled students undertaking fieldwork in geography, earth and environmental science departments in the UK. It also considers the various ways in which the images, spaces, practices and cultures of fieldwork may exclude or marginalize disabled students and the different ways in which fieldwork may be made more inclusive.

Keywords: Disabled students, fieldwork, higher education, exclusion, discourses, strategies for inclusion.

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HEALEY, M., JENKINS, A., LEACH, J. & ROBERTS, C. (2001) Issues in Providing Learning Support for Disabled Students Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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HEFCE. Disability Statements: A Guide to good practice (98/66) (Report. November 1998).

A guide to writing disability statements which identifies good practice and provides guidance on the content, style, format and marketing of the Disability Statement required under of the Disability Discrimination Act. Examples of University Disability Statements are available at http://cando.lancs.ac.uk/scripts/d/start.idc

Keywords: disability statements, good practice.

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HEFCE. (1999) Guidance on Base-level Provision for Disabled Students in Higher Education Institutions Ref: 99/04 (Segal, Quince Wicksteed Limited).

This report focuses on the learning and support needs of disabled students. It offers guidance to institutions on the base-level of provision they should aim to make for disabled students. It covers students with dyslexia, hidden disabilities, multiple disabilities, mental health issues, visual and hearing impairments, and mobility issues.

Keywords: base-level, support, provision, disabled students.

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HOFMAN, H. (Ed.) (1978) A Working Conference on Science Education for Handicapped Students: Proceedings, April 3-5, 1978 (Washington, and DC, National Science Teachers Association) (microfiche).

The purpose of the conference was to provide assessment on state of the art practices; to make recommendations to federal agencies, institutions and organisations; and ultimately to affect the quality of science education for physically disabled students. Attitudinal barriers and obstacles faced by disabled students were discussed by disabled scientists. A review of the literature on deafness is included.

Keywords: science education, physically disabled students, deaf, barriers.

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HURST, A. (1998) Disability awareness-raising and disability awareness-training in higher education in the United Kingdom in Hurst, A. (Ed.) (1998) Higher Education and Disabilities: International Approaches, 16, pp.167-182 (Aldershot, Ashgate).

This chapter examines disability awareness-raising and disability awarenesss-training in higher education in the United Kingdom. It looks at the HEFCE funded University of Central Lancashire staff training programme which aims to produce competent practitioners able to offer advice and support to disabled students in higher education and who are able to develop policy and provision for disabled students. The programmes' six modules are outlined. The institutional context is described in a case study.

Keywords: national staff development programme.

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HURST, A. (1998) Students with disabilities and learning difficulties in higher education in the United Kingdom in Hurst, A. (Ed.) (1998) Higher Education and Disabilities: International Approaches, 15, pp.149-166 (Aldershot, Ashgate).

Following the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, the government required the higher education funding councils to pay attention to the needs of disabled students. This paper looks at policy development within the English Funding Council, and briefly at the approaches taken in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. It gives an outline of one higher education institution in which reference will be made to the projects supported by money from the HEFCE.

Keywords: disabled students allowances, higher education, provision.

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HURST, A. (1998) Students with disabilities and international exchanges in Hurst, A. (Ed.) (1998) Higher Education and Disabilities: International Approaches, 15, pp.149-166 (Aldershot, Ashgate).

The paper explores a number of issues associated with ensuring that disabled students are not denied opportunities to participate in international exchanges.

Keywords: disabled students, opportunities, international exchanges.

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HURST, A. (2000) The Accessible Millennium (Skill).

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IMRI, E, R. (1996) Ableist geographies, disablist spaces: towards reconstruction of Golledge's 'Geography and the disabled', Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21, pp.397-403.

A comment on Golledge, R. (1993) Geography and the disabled: a survey with special reference to vision impaired and blind populations, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18(1), pp.63-85.

This article critiques Golledge (1993) and ableist geographies which fail to celebrate how we can recognise the vitality of difference.

Keywords: ableism, disablism, disability.

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KING, H., HAWLEY, D. & THOMAS, N. (Eds.) (1998) Proceedings of the UK Geosciences Fieldwork Symposium (Leicester, University of Leicester).

A compilation of papers concerning fieldwork in the geosciences presented from both the academic staff and students' point of view. Contributions from the staff include skills development, a student's first fieldcourse, examples of fieldwork from different institutions, the future of geological fieldwork and the use of computers in the field experience. Earth science students look at a geology undergraduate's view of learning from fieldwork, student-led fieldwork, perceptions of fieldwork and an example from the Canary Islands commenting on the unfamiliar learning experience. The remainder of the proceedings looks at the industrial perspective and abstracts of other case studies presented at the symposium.

Keywords: Earth sciences, geology, fieldwork, learning, future of fieldwork, computers, student perspective, perceptions.

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KITCHIN, R. (1998) Disability and Geography (Geographical Association)

A sourcebook of ideas designed to help people to think about disability issues and the importance of geography in understanding and explaining and improving the lives of disabled people. It aims to bridge the gap in terms of ideas, theories and methodologies between school-based and university level geography.

Keywords: ableism, social justice.

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LAWRENCE, D. (1997) Geography within our community - Disability Studies (New Zealand Geographical Society Conference Proceedings - Geographical Education Conference 6-9 July 1997, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand).

This paper discusses the link between geography and disability studies and gives examples of key areas of geography that can introduce students to the study of disability as well.

Keywords: Disability, geography, syllabus.

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PORTER, J. (1994) Disability in higher education: from person-based to interaction-based, Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 5(1), pp.69-75.

Abstract: The meaning of disability is analyzed from a conventional and an alternative perspective. Results of this analysis are applied to such higher education issues as institutional role, pedagogical expectations, and program quality. The articles advances a view of disability as interaction-specific rather than person-specific, as arising when the nature of the academic task or instructional environment fails to support adequately the learning characteristics of the student. Within this view, learning environments (including teachers) have a primary influence in creating or preventing educational disability. Implications of this position for all students in higher education, not only those conventionally designated as disabled, are explored.

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SAUCIER, T. C. & GAGLIANO, G. V. (1998) Serving students with disabilities in higher education in the United States of America, in Hurst, A. (Ed.) Higher Education and Disabilities: International Approaches.

This paper reviews the most prevalent models of disability service delivery in post-secondary educational institutions and discusses issues of contemporary concern to service providers.

Keywords: models, disability, service providers, secondary educational institutions.

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SKILL (National Bureau for Students with Disabilities). eQuip Resource Directory of HEFCE funded projects (http://www.equipservices.hefce.ac.uk/ResDir/Intro.htm).

This resource directory describes both the expertise and the products available from projects funded in previous HEFCE initiatives and provides contact details for further information.

Keywords: resource directory, expertise, products, HEFCE initiatives.

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SKILL (National Bureau for Students with Disabilities) The Coordinator's Handbook (London, Skill) 1997.

This document is written for new disabled students' co-ordinators. It sets out how to establish and operate a service for disabled students. It also has information on different disabilities and the support needs arising from them with information on relevant teaching strategies. There is a list of contacts for further advice and details of further useful publications.

Keywords: disabled students' co-ordinators, service, support needs.

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SKILL (National Bureau for Students with Disabilities) eQuip Special Initiative (1996-1999) to Encourage High Quality Provision for Students with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities: Projects in Progress: Summary Up-date Information.

This booklet contains listings and summaries of, and contacts for projects in HEFCE's disability-related Special Initiative.

Keywords: HEFCE, Special Initiative, disability-related projects.

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THE QUALITY ASSURANCE AGENCY FOR HIGHER EDUCATION. Consultation Draft Code of Practice: Students with Disabilities.

The object of the code is to assist institutions in ensuring that disabled students have access to a learning experience comparable to that of their peers. It covers the precepts of the code: general principles, the physical environment, information for applicants, students and staff, selection and admission of students, learning and teaching including field trips, additional specialist support, complaints, monitoring and evaluation.

Keywords: code, disabled students, access, institutions.

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TINKLIN, T. & HALL, J. (1999) Getting Round Obstacles: disabled students' experiences in higher education in Scotland, Studies in Higher Education, 24(2), pp.183-194.

This paper reports the findings of a study of the experiences of disabled students in higher education in Scotland (See above for actual report). Whilst acknowledging the uniqueness of each student's situation, this article aims to identify common themes in the students' lives which relate to studying in higher education with a disability. The paper critiques current provision, and highlights recent improvements as well as gaps.

Keywords: disabled students, provision, Scotland.

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WALSH, E. (1977) The handicapped and science: moving into the mainstream, Science, 196, pp.1424-1426.

This paper describes the impact of The Rehabilitation Act (1973) on the teaching of science to the disabled in the USA. It reviews the Hadary program which is a curriculum specifically designed to teach science to disabled children. The Disability Discrimination Act. Available from http://www.disability.gov.uk/dda/codethree/index.html

Keywords: Rehabitation Act, science, teaching, disabled, USA, Hadary, curriculum.

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ZANANDREA, M. & RIZZO, T. (1998) Attitudes of undergraduate physical education majors in Bazil towards teaching students with disabilities, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(2), pp.699-706.

This study assessed the attitudes of physical education majors and teachers in Brazil to students with specific disabling conditions. The results of the study showed that there were no significant differences in attitudes towards teaching students with these disabilities when they were compared with attitudes towards teaching students without any disabilities.

Keywords: disabilities.

2. General - Other Useful Resources

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BARTON, L. & OLIVER, M. (Eds.) (1996) Disability Studies: Past, Present and Future (University of Leeds, The Disability Press).

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CAMPBELL, J. & OLIVER, M. (1996) Disability Politics: Understanding our Past, Changing our Future (London, Routledge).

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CHOUINARD, V. (1997) Making space for disabling differences and challenging ableist geographies. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 15, pp.379-390.

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DAVIS, L. J. (Ed.) (1997) The Disabilities Studies Reader (London, Routledge).

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HALES, G. (Ed.) (1996) Beyond Disability: Towards an Enabling Environment (London, Sage).

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MORRIS, J. (1991) Pride against Prejudice: Transforming the Attitudes to Disability (London, The Women's Press).

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NAIRN, K.(1998) Embodied fieldwork. Journal of Geography, 98(6), pp.272-282.

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OLIVER, M. (1996) Understanding Disability: From Theory to Practice (Basingstoke, Macmillan).

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OLIVER, M. & BARNES, C. (1998) Disabled People and Social Policy (London, Longman).

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PEELO, M. (1994) Helping Students with Study Problems (Buckingham, SRHE & Open University Press).

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SKILL (National Bureau for Students with Disabilities) (1996) Sharing the Gains: Strategies for Effective Dissemination of Good practice in Provision for Students with Disabilities (London, Skill).

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SWAIN, J., FINKELSTEIN, V., FRENCH, S., & OLIVER, M. (Eds.) (1993) Disabling Barriers - Enabling Environments (London, Sage).

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The Disability and Geography International Network (DAGIN) site is at http://www.swan.ac.uk/disability/dagin/Aboutdagin.html.

3. Mobility Impairments

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FRY, C. M. (1988) Maps for the physically disabled, The Cartographic Journal, 25, pp.20-28.

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GANT, R. (1992) Transport for the disabled, Geography, 77 (1) pp.88-91.

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GANT, R. & SMITH, J. (1990) Feet first in Kingston town centre: a study of personal mobility, Kingston Accessibility Studies, Working Paper No. 2 (Kingston Polytechnic, School of Geography).

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GARDINER, V. & ANWAR, N. (2001) Providing Learning Support for Students with Mobility Impairments Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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KIRBY, A. M., BOWLBY, S. R., & SWANN, V. (1983) Mobility problems of the disabled, Cities, 1(2), pp.117-119.

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MATTHEWS, M. H. & VUJAKOVIC, P. (1995) Private Worlds and Public places: Mapping the Environmental Values of Wheelchair Users, Environment and Planning A, 27, pp.1069-1083.

4. Blind or Visually Impaired

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BOYD, W. E. (1993) The blind leading the blind? Teaching geography to students to students with vision impairment, Australian Geographical Studies, April 1993, 31(1), pp.91-96.

As Geography frequently uses graphics to express the spatial concepts that are the hallmark of the discipline, students with vision impairment may find access to this medium limited. This paper explores strategies which may be adopted to facilitate access. These include: the provision of suitable materials; the adaptation of the conceptual and administrative bases of teaching; and the provision of advice and information.

Keywords: graphics, spatial, vision impairment, access, educational institutions, materials, teaching, advice, information

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BOYD, W. E. (1993) Teaching geography to students with vision impairment: a test for the University of New England Northern Rivers Policy on Disability Access, Pathways II proceedings of the 2nd National Conference on People with Disabilities in Post Secondary Education (Volume 1) (Higher Education Disability Network (Queensland) Incorporated, Brisbane, Australia.

This paper describes the policy on Disability Access adopted at the University of New England Northern Rivers and reviews it in terms of specific requirements needed to provide equitable access for students with vision impairment.

Keywords: disability access, vision impairment, University of New England Northern Rivers

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HINTON, R. (1994/5) Tactile Graphics in Education (Edinburgh, Moray House Publications).

This book describes the nature of tactile diagrams, their uses, problems associated with their use, perceptual issues and methods of production. (HEFCE funded project)

Keywords: tactile diagrams, education

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OWEN HUTCHINSON, J. S., ATKINSON, K. & ORPWOOD, J. (undated) Breaking Down Barriers: Access to Further and Higher Education for Visually Impaired Students (London, RNIB).

This book identifies the barriers that visually impaired students have to overcome and suggests ways in which these barriers can be removed or reduced. Practical advice is given on physical barriers.

Keywords: disability awareness, staff development, support, institutional development

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Royal National Institute for the Blind (1994) Visual Impairment in Further and Higher Education: A guide for staff (RNIB).

For all staff in post-sixteen education working with visually impaired students.

Keywords: education, visually impaired students

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SHEPHERD, I. (2001) Providing Learning Support for Blind or Visually Impaired Students Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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TRAVIS, J. W. (1990) Geology and the visually impaired student, Journal of Geological Education, Vol 38 (1), pp.41-49.

Classroom techniques and laboratory exercises developed for visually impaired students enrolled in an introductory geology course are described in this paper.

Keywords: apparatus, earth science teaching, - non-traditional clientele, education, geology - introductory course, visually impaired student

5. Blind or Visually Impaired - Other Useful References

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GOLLEDGE, R. G. (1991) Cognition of physical and built environments in Gärling, T. & Evans, G. (Eds.), Environment, Cognition, and Action: An Integrated Approach (pp.35-62) (New York, Oxford University Press).

GOLLEDGE, R. G. (1993) Geography and the Disabled: A survey with special references to vision impaired and blind populations, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18(1), pp.63-85.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G. (1997) On reassembling one's life: overcoming disability in the academic environment. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 15, pp.391-409.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., LOOMIS, J. M., KLATZKY, R. L., FLURY, A., & YANG, X. L. (1991) Designing a personal guidance system to aid navigation without sight: Progress on the GIS component, International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 5, pp.373-396.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., LOOMIS, J., KLATZKY, R., PELLEGRINO, J. W., DOHERTY, S., & CICINELLI, J. (1988) Environmental cognition and assessment: Spatial Cognition of the Blind and Visually Impaired. Paper presented at Environmental Cognition and Assessment Conference, Umeå, Sweden.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., KLATZKY R. L., & LOOMIS, J. M. (1996). Cognitive mapping and wayfinding by adults without vision in PORTUGALI, J. (Ed.) The Construction of Cognitive Maps, pp.215-246 (Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer).

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., KLATZKY, R. L., LOOMIS, J. M., SPEIGLE, J., & TIETZ, J. (1998) A geographic information system for a GPS based personal guidance system, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 12(7), pp.727-749.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., MARSTON, J.R., & COSTANZO, C. M. (1996, September) The Use of Public Transit by a Disabled Population: The Case of the Blind and Vision Impaired. Paper presented at the Geography Department, George Mason University, Washington, DC.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., MARSTON, J.R., & COSTANZO, C. M. (1997, August) The Accessible City. Paper presented at Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., MARSTON, J. R., & COSTANZO, C. M. (1997) Attitudes of visually impaired persons toward the use of public transportation, Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(5), pp.446-459.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., MARSTON, J. R., & COSTANZO, C. M. (1998) Assistive Devices and Services for the Disabled: Auditory Signage and the Accessible City for Blind or Vision Impaired Travelers (California PATH Working Paper UCB-ITS-PWP-98-18 University of California, Berkeley California PATH Program, Institute of Transportation Studies).

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., PETERS, J. M., & HARP, K. L. (1986, April 18) Cracking the Print Barrier for the Blind and Visually Impaired: Ontogenesis of the System. Paper presented as a basis for a Community Service Lecture, Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW.

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., RICHARDSON, G. D., RAYNER, J. N., & PARNICKY, J. J. (1983) Procedures for defining and analyzing cognitive maps of the mildly and moderately mentally retarded in ACREDOLO H. L. P. Jr. & L. P. (Eds.) Spatial Orientation: Theory, Research, and Application, pp.79-104 (New York, Plenum Press).

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GOLLEDGE, R. G., & STIMSON, R. J. (1997) Spatial Behavior: A Geographic Perspective (New York, Guilford Press).

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HINTON, R. & HINTON, D. (1999) Tactile diagrams for the able undergraduate chemistry student, Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 937, pp.429-433.

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JACOBSON, R. D., KITCHIN, R. M., GÄRLING, T., GOLLEDGE, R. G., & BLADES, M. (1998) Learning a Complex Urban Route Without Sight: Comparing Naturalistic Versus Laboratory Measures. Paper presented at Mind III: The Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

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LOOMIS, J.M. (1985) Digital Map and Navigation System for the Visually Impaired. Unpublished manuscript (Santa Barbara, Department of Psychology, University of California).

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LOOMIS, J.M., GOLLEDGE, R.G., & KLATZKY, R.L. (1993) Personal guidance system for the visually impaired using GPS, GIS, and VR technologies. Proceedings of the First Annual International Conference, Virtual Reality and Persons with Disabilities, San Francisco, California, June 17-18.

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LOOMIS, J.M., GOLLEDGE, R.G., & KLATZKY, R.L. (1995) Personal guidance system for blind persons. Proceedings of the Conference on Orientation and Navigation Systems for Blind Persons, Hatfield, England, February 1-2.

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LOOMIS, J.M., GOLLEDGE, R.G., & KLATZKY, R.L. (1996) GPS for the visually impaired in Conference Proceedings, Trimble Surveying & Mapping Conference, San Jose, California.

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LOOMIS, J. M., GOLLEDGE, R. G., & KLATZKY, R. L. (1998) Navigation systems for the blind: Auditory display modes and guidance, Presence-Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(2), pp.193-203.

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LOOMIS, J.M., GOLLEDGE, R.G., & KLATZKY, R.L. (1999) GPS-based navigation systems for the blind, in: Barfield, W. and Caudell, T. (Eds.) Augmented Reality and Wearable Computers (Mahway, NJ, Erlbaum).

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LOOMIS, J.M., KLATZKY, R.L., & GOLLEDGE, R.G. (1998) Auditory Distance Perception in Real, Virtual, and Mixed Environments. Paper prepared for The First International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR'99), Yokohama, Japan, March 9-11, 1999.

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LOOMIS, J.M., KLATZKY, R.L., GOLLEDGE, R.G., & PHILBECK, J.W. (1998) Human navigation by path integration, in: GOLLEDGE, R. G. (Ed.) Wayfinding: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior (Baltimore, MD, The Johns Hopkins University Press).

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LOOMIS, J.M., KLATZKY, R.L., PHILBECK, J.W., & GOLLEDGE, R.G. (1998) Assessing auditory distance perception using perceptually directed action, Perception & Psychophysics, 60, pp.966-980.

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LOOMIS, J.M., & SOULE, J.I. (1996) Virtual acoustic displays for real and virtual environments. Proceedings of the Society for Information Display, International Symposium. San Diego, California, May 12-17, pp.965-968.

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MARSTON, J.R., & GOLLEDGE, R.G. (1998) Toward an Accessible City: The Use of Auditory Signage for the Vision and Print Handicapped. Paper presented at the Society for Disability Studies 11th Annual Meeting, Oakland, CA, June 4.

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Royal National Institute for the Blind website http://www.rnib.org.uk.

6. Deaf or Hard of Hearing

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British Deaf Association website can be found at http://www.britishdeafassociation.org.uk/.

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CHESS (Consortium of Higher Education Support Services for Deaf Students) Tel. No. 0115 968 6163.

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LAUGESEN, C.F. & TURNER, G.H. (2000) Language Support for D/deaf Students in Higher Education, in Hurst, A. The Accessible Millennium (Skill).

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MANNING, K. (1994) Expectations and surprises in learning to teach a member of the deaf culture, Journal of Excellence in College Teaching, 5(1), pp.77-88.

Abstract: This article chronicles the experience of a faculty member who, without prior training in teaching methodology or special education, taught a deaf graduate student in four courses. Writing from a practical perspective, the author discusses her expectations and reactions, what she learned about the Deaf culture, and what the student and the interpreters taught her about working with students who have disabilities.

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SUTHERLAND, J.(no date) Guidelines for Working with Deaf and Hearing Impaired Students (Sheffield, Sheffield Hallam University).

A guide to good practice when teaching deaf and hearing impaired students. It includes some background information on deaf history and sign language and, although initially aimed at lecturers working at Sheffield Hallam University, it can be adapted for use in other institution. (HEFCE funded project).

Keywords: deaf, hard-of-hearing students

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Royal Association of Deaf People website can be found at http://www.royaldeaf.org.uk/.

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Royal National Institute for Deaf People website can be found at http://www.rnid.org.uk/.

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WAREHAM, T., CLARK, G. & LAUGESEN, C. (2001) Providing Learning Support for d/Deaf or Hearing Impaired Students Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

7. Hidden Disabilities

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BOERUM, L.J. (2000) Developing portfolios with learning disabled students, Reading and Writing Quarterly, 16, pp.211-238.

Abstract: A portfolio design was developed by a resource room teacher and her colleagues with whom she has team-taught reading to a heterogeneous group of sixth grade students. During the 1995-96 school year, all sixth grade students were engaged in authentic and alternative learning experiences, reflection, goal setting, and self-assessment. An inquiry was made at the start of the year based on the development of the portfolio design. The ways in which alternative and authentic assessments would result in students of varying abilities increasing their self-exceptations and performance levels were investigated. Evidence was collected demonstrating that when given the opportunity to engage in performance-based activities and assessments, students with learning disabilities can begin to clarify their strengths and weaknesses as learners in order to set goals for improvement.

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CHALKLEY, B. & WATERFIELD, J. (2001) Providing Learning Support for Students with Hidden Disabilities and Dyslexia Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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Seizure - European Journal of Epilepsy

8. Dyslexia - Books and articles

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CLINE, T. & REASON, R. (1993) Specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): equal opportunities issues, British Journal of Special Education, 20(1) pp.30-34.

Abstract: This article raises important questions concerning the lack of attention to issues of equal opportunity in the literature on specific learning difficulties. There are significant problems in practice, theory and research. The authors identify five objectives for professional practice and research.

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GIBBERD, D. & MICHELSON, C. (1999) The Changing Face of Dyslexia in Higher Education: A Digest and Commentary on the Report of the National Working Party on Dyslexia in Higher Education (London, City University).

This is a concise review and summary of the key issues raised by the Singleton Report on Dyslexia in Higher Education and is aimed to benefit support staff and discuss modes of dyslexia provision. It is hoped that this review will help with staff training understanding of dyslexia issues throughout the institution. Some advice is given to further reading, software and support groups.

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GILROY, D.E. & MILES, T.R. (1996) Dyslexia at College Second Edition (London, Routledge).

Practical methods of dealing with dyslexic student needs are considered in relation to various aspects of teaching. Such aspects include the move to higher education, study skills and the support tutor, reading, note-taking, grammar and punctuation, spelling, mathematics and statistics, preparing and sitting examinations and information technology.

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GOODALL, R. & ELVIDGE, L. (1999) Developing Postgraduates' Teaching Skills in The Sciences (Norwich, University of East Anglia).

Module 2 concerns supporting students with special needs. Within this is a section on supporting students with dyslexia where the objectives are to make the teachers aware of the effects of dyslexia on the way the students process information. The problems with teaching and assessment of dyslexic students are discussed and presentation tips and comments on written work are given.

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McLOUGHLIN, D., FITZGIBBON, G. & YOUNG, V. (1994) Adult Dyslexia: Assessment, Counselling and Training (London, Whurr Publishers).

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MILES, T.R. DYSLEXIA - An International Journal of Research and Practice.

Dyslexia provides reviews and reports of research, assessment and intervention practice. In many fields of enquiry theoretical advances often occur in response to practical needs; and a central aim of the journal is to bring together researchers and practitioners in the field of dyslexia, so that each can learn from the other. Interesting developments, both theoretical and practical, are being reported in many different countries: DYSLEXIA is a forum in which knowledge of these developments can be shared by readers in all parts of the world.

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PEELO, M. (1994) Helping Students with Study Problems (Buckingham, The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press).

The background, assumptions and myths about dyslexia are explored before moving on to chapters concerning talking to the students regarding their aims, expectations, and later on themselves and communication. Reading, writing and fear of numbers and examinations make up a substantial part of the rest of the book. Peelo discusses the use of workshops to teach study skills in an experiential rather than a mechanistic way.

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PUMFREY, P.D. (1998) Reforming policy and provision for dyslexic students in higher education: Towards a national code of practice, Support for Learning, 13(2) pp.87-91.

The article discusses the provision for dyslexic students in higher education. He argues that it is time we moved towards a more coherent national policy to support talented disabled students including those who are dyslexic. However, he has doubts as to whether this can be sufficiently funded given the pressure on university funding.

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REID, G. (Ed.) (1993) Specific Learning Difficulties (Dyslexia): Perspectives on Practice (Edinburgh, Moray House Publications).

Reid discusses teaching dyslexic students in the following categories: assessment, teaching in the curriculum, reading, writing and mathematics, speech and language, metacognition, emotional considerations and practice, processes and resources.

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REID, G. (1998) Dyslexia: A Practitioner's Handbook Second Edition (Chichester, John Wiley).

Defining dyslexia , the acquisition of literacy, assessment approaches and processes, teaching approaches, curriculum access and further and higher education prospects for dyslexic students are the main topics discussed. Reid provides a review of resources and developments in dyslexia towards the end of the book. The first edition of this book has been recommended as one of texts for teacher training courses in dyslexia.

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SINGLETON, C. (1999) Dyslexia in Higher Education: Policy, Provision and Practice (Hull, The National Working Party on Dyslexia in Higher Education, HEFCE).

The report starts at looking at what dyslexia is before discussing the results of a national survey on dyslexia provision and the consultative process. The authors look at institutional and national policy, staff development and institutional awareness, admission to higher education, the identification of students with dyslexia and how to evaluate their needs and support them, counselling dyslexic students and offering careers advice. Examinations and assessment is also covered. The report includes useful addresses to contact. Two questions are addressed within the report:

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WOLFENDALE, S. & CORBETT, J. (Eds.) (1996) Opening Doors: Learning Support in Higher Education (London, Cassell).

Primarily a text concerning entitlement and access to higher education as well as the support systems available for students with difficulties. More generic learning support and development are discussed towards the beginning of the book but chapter 4 concerns supporting dyslexic students with their difficulties.

9. Dyslexia - Other Useful References

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HERRINGTON, M. & HUNTER-CARSCH, M. (Eds.) (1999) Dyslexia and Effective Learning (London, Whurr Publishers).

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KAUFMAN, C., SINGLETON, C. & HUTCHINS, J. (1998) IT for Dyslexic Adults (British Dyslexic Association).

10. Mental Health Difficulties

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ACCESS SUMMIT (undated) Handbook for Staff on Supporting Students Experiencing Mental and Emotional Distress (Manchester, Access Summit) Available on disk from Access Summit, Joint Universities Disability Resource Centre, St Peter's House, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9GH (Cost £15).

Staff handbook providing information about mental and emotional distress, referral procedures for students, strategies for supporting students, equipment and personal support and sources of further information.

Keywords: mental health problems

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BIRNIE, J. & GRANT, A. (2001) Providing Learning Support for Students with Mental Health Difficulties Undertaking Fieldwork and Related Activities, (Cheltenham: Geography Discipline Network).

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FARRELL, E. (1997) The Complete Guide to Mental Health: the comprehensive guide to choosing therapy, counselling and psychiatric care (London, Vermillion).

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PARR, H. (1999) Delusional geographies: the experiential worlds of people during madness/illness, Environment and Planning D - Society and Space, 17(6), pp.673-690.

This paper investigates the spatial implications of a disruptive mesh between consciousness and unconsciousness by paying attention to the 'delusional' experiences of people named as having mental health problems. This empirical investigation explores individual accounts of delusional experience and the changed relationships with the body, home and city. The 'unboundedness' of delusional experience is discussed, and the unpredictable therapeutic properties of non-medical material spaces are addressed. It is argued that academic geography has neglected the voices of people who experience delusion and the many spaces which they inhabit.

Keywords: geographies of health, mental health problems, spatial implications, delusional experience

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POWELL, T. (2000) The Mental Health Handbook, Revised Edition (Winslow Press Ltd.).

11. Multiple Disabilities

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LANCIONI, G.E. & MANTINI, M. (1999) A corrective-feedback system for helping a person with multiple disabilities during indoor travel, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, pp.1291-1295.

An unobtrusive system which provided corrective feedback (vibratory stimulation) for an incorrect direction, was used to help a woman with deafness and profound intellectual and visual disabilities during her indoor travel. The data showed that the woman used the system very effectively and reached destinations for performing activities independently. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: blind pedestrians, orientation, mobility

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LANCIONI, G.E., O'REILLY, M.F., CAMPODONICO, & F. MANTINI, M. (1998) Mobility versus sedentariness in task arrangements for people with multiple disabilities: An assessment of preferences, Research in Developmental Disabilities,19(6), pp.465-475.

This study is an attempt to assess preferences between a task arrangement involving mobility and a task arrangement involving sedentariness with three adults with multiple disabilities.

Keywords: choice, opportunities, severe handicaps

12. Multiple Disabilities - Other Useful References

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Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps

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SENSE, Making Contact, A Good Practice Guide: how to involve and communicate with a deafblind person (Sense)

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