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Developing an International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography in Higher Education

Reflections on Experience in School Education

Sue Burkill (College of St. Mark and St. John, UK)
Eleanor Rawling (University of Oxford, UK)
Sarah Bednarz (Texas A&M University, USA)
John Lidstone (Queensland University of Technology, Australia)



0 Historical reflections

In 1870, Charles Ruelens, map-maker and Director of the Royal Library in Brussels, proposed that a congress be held to discuss matters associated with map-making, travel to other lands and a science of the earth as well as to commemorate the work of his fellow countrymen, Gerhard Krämer, better known as Gerardus Mercator. Although the Franco-Prussian War caused a slight delay in his plans, the first Congress of Geographical, Cosmographical and Commercial Sciences was held in Antwerp in August 1871, and this first international meeting of geographers was attended by over 400 people from 20 countries.

The next two Congresses, in Paris in 1875 and Venice in 1881, were attended by increasing numbers, and in order to make the Congresses manageable, the discussions were arranged in groups. However it was not until the Third Congress in Venice that a special section on "Methods of teaching and diffusion of geography" was established.

The Fifth Geographical Congress was held in Berne, Switzerland, in 1891 and for the first time, commissions were established, although geographical education per se did not achieve the status of an independent commission until the Eighth Congress held in the United States in 1904. A Commission on Geographical Education has been re-appointed at each Congress since that time, making Geographical Education the longest running Commission of the International Geographical Union.
 

1 Introduction

1.1 The authors

Clearly the existence of international networks of geographers is not a new phenomenon. While Commissions such as that on Geographical Education described above represent the formal side of the equation, they are at least equalled in importance by informal and semi-formal groups. Many academics and teachers belong to networks of their own which intersect to create the international culture of geographical study. The authors of this paper, for example, have been involved in: Appendix 2:    More about the authors of this paper
 

1.2 The issues addressed

It is interesting to note that, whilst networks of school geography educators have discussed issues relating to learning/teaching approaches, curriculum design and resource development (see above), higher education geographers have focused mainly on substantive geographical research. Given that the two groups tend to meet in different contexts and have perceived themselves as having different agendas, it is not surprising that there have been few opportunities to share learning and teaching experiences across sectors and between countries.  Even where common topics have been identified, discussion has remained separate. Note for example, that JGHE has remained largely HE focused and IRGEE is predominantly a forum for school educational matters.  The development of a new international higher education network (INLT), with a focus on enhancing learning and teaching, provides a timely opportunity to re-evaluate this situation and to explore the benefits of greater links between the school and higher education sectors within and between countries.

This paper is arranged in three separate sections. Each section explores one aspect of recent school geography experience and reflects on possible collaboration with higher education. The key questions addressed are

The paper ends with a set of discussion questions to which readers are invited to respond through the pre-symposium Internet discussion. (Section Five)

Appendix 1 provides information about relevant geography education initiatives and groups mentioned in the text.
 
 

2.  School/higher education links at national level

2.1 Existing networks

It should not be forgotten that the UK in particular has a long tradition of involvement by higher education in school geography, particularly through the work of the Geographical Association. However, the last ten years have witnessed a revival in schools-higher education interchange after a period in which dialogue was more limited. Initiatives that have proved capable of bringing national geographical organisations and educators from all sectors together include: In all countries there have been:

2.2 Moving the dialogue forward

There is increasing recognition that, despite the different structures and systems in school education and higher education, and despite the pressures from national guidelines and audit systems (common to all three countries), there is much to be gained from dialogue. Haggett speaking at the 1994 COBRIG Seminar reminded geographers that this has been to the benefit of both systems and he suggested that efforts should be made "to reinforce the links between geographical study at different levels and to make more transparent the interfaces between, school, college, university and research institutes" (Haggett, 1996). Daugherty and Rawling (1996) writing in the edited collection of papers from this Seminar, draw attention to three compelling reasons for promoting these links: The first area of interest links directly with the symposium paper on pedagogy (Chalkley et al). The USA provides evidence that experiences can be shared across the sectors. Geographers in higher education have become increasingly involved in developing school curricula and researching school learning as a result of the inclusion of geography in the National Standards. The benefits are beginning to be felt in both sectors. Developing a joint teaching and learning research agenda must be a potential focus for both national and international geography networks (Downs, 1994).

The second area of interest is addressed in the seminar paper on skills for employability and life (Le Heron et al). In England and Wales the Dearing reports (1996;1997) have emphasised key skills at secondary and tertiary level. This agenda is being carried forward separately by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) for higher education and the QCA for schools. Given the common roots of these initiatives, dialogue across the secondary/tertiary divide is essential. Geographers are well placed to recognise the need for continuity and progression and to respond in their planning.

The third area (the nature and purpose of the subject) is beyond the scope of this seminar. It is, however, an essential pre-requisite for mutual understanding and may provide a platform for discussion from which learning and teaching initiatives emerge. It is particularly difficult for school teachers to maintain awareness of new developments in geography. They need to do so in order to ensure that school curricula are relevant and meaningful for pupils and that central curriculum guidelines do not legitimise outdated approaches. The Geography Alliance network in the USA has demonstrated one successful approach to involving higher education colleagues in this activity and there may be lessons in this approach for international developments.
.

2.3 The professional development agenda: teacher education

Teacher education is one part of the geographical education system that is of crucial importance and yet has, perhaps, been under-represented in recent discussions. This should be a cause for concern as Yet the situation, certainly in Australia and England and Wales, is that teacher educators occupy a separate niche and academic publishing pressures are moving them nearer to their academic education colleagues rather than their subject colleagues. In England and Wales where the Dearing recommendations (1998) have resulted in an initiative to accredit teachers in higher education there is an immediate rationale for dialogue with teacher educators. National geography networks have not addressed this issue fully.

Has the problem become one of bridging not one gap but two, in the threefold structure of school geography, geography in higher education and geography in teacher education? Is there scope for an international network for teaching and learning in geography to address this situation?
 
 

3. Approaches to learning, teaching and curriculum development in schools

3.1 Active learning approaches

In England and Wales, Australia, and the USA, the past twenty years have seen significant developments in a wide range of more active learning and teaching approaches in school geography. The term 'geographical enquiry' (England and Wales) or 'inquiry' (Australia, USA), is frequently, though not universally, used to describe these approaches. The American High School Geography Project pioneered simulation and role play activities and these, along with new ideas about children's learning provided the stimulus for many subsequent developments in the USA and in other countries. The emphasis has been on broadening the range of teaching and learning strategies so that pupils are involved in handling and presenting data, participating in discussion, critically evaluating alternative views, role-playing, problem solving and decision-making, as well as in the more traditional essay writing and note taking activities The intention is to widen the potential learning outcomes attainable through geography.

Current developments in teaching and learning for undergraduates (as evidenced by the Geography Discipline Network series and articles in JGHE ) seem, in some respects, to be following a similar path to that taken by schools. Whilst the age range may be different, many of the strategies being explored and the issues about implementation are the same. There are undoubtedly possibilities for useful exchange if the channels for dialogue can be created

3.2 Cross curricular initiatives

School geography has gained substantially from involvement in wider educational initiatives. For example, a range of curriculum uses for Information and Communication Technology in school geography has been developed and trialled in schools in all three countries (e.g. in the Geographical Association/National Council for Educational Technology Geography/IT project in England (Hassell and Warner, 1995) and in the ARGUS project, USA). There are interesting ideas to share including the notion of 'a minimum entitlement to IT through geography' (Burkill, 1996) and the possibilities of the Virtual Geography Department and Virtual Fieldwork. However, despite attempts to encourage school/higher education interaction (e.g. through some Alliance activities in the USA, where university and community colleges have shared developments in GIS and remote sensing; through the Computers in Teaching Initiative (CTI) for Geography in the UK) such developments have, for reasons of funding and accessibility, taken place largely in separate contexts. Schools also have some experience of work-related learning, industry links and using the subject as a vehicle for key skills. (Geography, Schools and Industry Project, Corney, 1992). Such activities have demonstrated the importance of ensuring that the subject objectives are not distorted and are of obvious relevance to the work of the Geography Discipline Network, DfEE funded, Key Skills in Geography in Higher Education project.
 

3.3 Research into effective dissemination strategies

There is a long tradition of curriculum innovation and change in school geography in England and Wales, USA and Australia. As a result there is a wealth of research and practical experience about the relative value and effectiveness of different approaches to change (Graves, 1979). Some school curriculum development activities focused on materials production and exchange (Geography for the Young School Leaver Project, England and Wales; ARGUS Project, USA). Others stressed the role of the teacher as curriculum developer (Geography 14-18 Project, England and Wales; Alliance activities in the USA). As a result of National Geographic Society funding in the 1980s, it has been possible to run high profile National Summer Institutes for teachers from all parts of the USA and to send them back equipped to disseminate ideas and resources further. Changes to examination structures have frequently been influential in stimulating change in schools (school based curriculum development in Queensland in response to the removal of public examinations in favour of moderated school assessment; Geography 16-19 Project decision-making paper in England and Wales)
 

3.4 A centralised curriculum?

Recent developments have given school geography educators in all three countries experience in dealing with centralisation and political pressures. In England and Wales, the challenge has been to simplify and clarify an initially over-prescriptive National Geography Curriculum (Rawling,1992) and to ensure a place for geographical enquiry. In Australia, difficulties have been caused by the invention of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE) as a "Key Learning Area" within a Federal National Curriculum. While New South Wales and Victoria have identified history and geography as having the potential to contribute to SOSE, Queensland has developed a new subject to which geography and other "social sciences" are expected to contribute, regardless of the logical substantive or pedagogical structure of the disciplines themselves. In the USA, the main issue has been the lack of a national federal requirement to study geography, despite high profile initiatives to improve its quality through National Standards (1994). Implementation of the Standards has now been delegated to State level and so take-up and support vary widely. Apart from the potential for dialogue about the process of curriculum change, there are also in England and the USA, some tentative attempts to outline age related standards for 5-18 year olds (National Curriculum level descriptions/expectations in England/Wales; achievement outcomes in USA). Such developments may be of interest to higher education colleagues if faced, as in England currently, with the need to outline more explicit standards (benchmarking) for geography at degree level. The recent announcement by (QAA Dec 1998) that Geography will be expected to have benchmarking criteria in place by late 1999 heightens the need for dialogue. The higher education community has been advised to consult the criteria devised by chemistry, history and law. Perhaps consultation with school colleagues and reference to the Geography National Curriculum would also be a useful way forward.
 
 

4. International Networks for School Geography

It has been shown that some of the most effective international linkages have been informally developed. However, there have been formal moves to internationalise school geography networks, most notably through the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education. Past activities of this Commission have focused on More recent and successful IGU initiatives include Progress in all areas is slow partly because of the multiplicity of different school systems in the world and partly because it has still not been possible to link the educational activities more closely with the work of other Commissions. Consequently matters of significance to higher education dealt with in the Geographical Education Commission (e.g. supply of geography teachers, status and health of geography in schools), do not reach the wider audience they deserve, whilst many of the big issues about teaching quality and central control of higher education are not discussed at all in the main IGU sessions.
 
 

5. Conclusion

The message drawn from the 1994 COBRIG Seminar was that constructive interchange will only occur if new channels and networks for cross-sectoral activity are put in place. Healey's editorial in JGHE (1998) drew attention to three different levels of network - institution-based networks, national networks and international networks. Schools/higher education dialogue is already developing at national levels, and school education has an established international network, which has potential for further expansion and development. The proposed international network for learning and teaching geography in higher education may be seen as a valuable step towards raising the profile of teaching and learning in academia. In this sense, it will provide the necessary stimulus and informational base for meaningful dialogue with school geography educators and it is important that this initiative receives support from geographers at all levels in the system.
 
 

6. Issues for discussion

Internet Discussion Comments
Some questions for higher education geographers before and during the Hawaii Symposium are:

7. References

Bednarz, R.S. and Peterson, J.F. (Eds.) (1995) A Decade of Reform in Geographic Education: Inventory and Prospect.

Burkill, S. (1996) Trends in School Geography and Information Technology, in Rawling E. and Daugherty R. Geography into the Twenty First Century, London, Wiley

Corney, G. (1992) Teaching Economic Understanding through Geography, Sheffield, Geographical Association

Dearing, Sir R. (1996) Review of Qualifications for 16-19 Year Olds, Full Report, London, School Curriculum and Assessment Authority.

Dearing, Sir R. (1998) Higher Education in the Learning Society.  Report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education, London, HMSO.

DES (1990) Geography in the National Curriculum, London, HMSO

DFE (1995) Geography in the National Curriculum, London, HMSO

Downs, R.M. (1994) The Need for Research in Geography Education: It would be nice to have some data, in A Decade of Reform in Geographic Education: Inventory and Prospect, ed R.S. Bednarz and J. Petersen, 127-133. Indiana: PA: National Council for Geographic Education.

Foskett, N. and Marsden, B. (Eds) (1998) Bibliography of Geographical Education, 1970-1997 Sheffield, The Geographical Association.

Geography Education Standards Project (1994) Geography for Life: National Geography Standards,  Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Gerber, R. and Lidstone, J. (Eds) (1988) Developing Skills in Geographical Education, Brisbane: International Geographical Union with Jacaranda Wiley. 1995

Gerber, R. & Lidstone, J. (eds.) (1996) Developments & Directions in Geographical Education. Clevedon: Channel View Publications

Graves, N.J. (1979) Curriculum Planning in Geography, London, Heinemann Educational

Haggett, P. (1996) Geography into the Next Century, Personal Reflections, in Rawling E. and Daugherty R. Geography into the Twenty First Century, London, Wiley

Hassell, D. and Warner, H. (1995) Using IT to Enhance Geography: case studies at Key Stages 3 and 4, Sheffield, Geographical Association

Haubrich, H. (1992) International Charter on Geographical Education. Nurnberg: Commission on Geographical Education.

Healey, M. (1998) Editorial I: Developing and internationalising higher education networks in geography, Journal of Geography in Higher Education Vol 22(3), 277-282

Lidstone, J. (ed.) (1994) Global Issues of Our Time. Melbourne, Cambridge University Press

Naish, M., Rawling, E. & Hart, M. (1987) Geography 16-19: The Contribution of a Curriculum Development Project to 16-19 Education, Harlow, Longman

Rawling, E. M. (1992) The Making of a National Geography Curriculum, Geography no.337 77(4) Sheffield, Geographical Association

Rawling, E. and Daugherty, R. (1996) Geography into the Twenty First Century, London, Wiley

School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA) (1996) Consistency in Teacher Assessment.  KS3 Exemplification of Standards: Geography, London, SCAA

School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA)  (1997) Expectations in Geography at Key Stages 1 and 2 London, SCAA

Schrettenbrunner, H. and van Westrehenen, J. (eds) (1992) Empirical Research and Geography Teaching. Utrecht/Amsterdam: Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap/Centrum voor Educatieve Geografie Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

QAA (Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education) (1998) Quality Assurance: A new approach, Higher quality, 4, 2-21

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, QCA, (1998) Geographical Enquiry Key Stages 1-3: A Discussion Paper. London, QCA
 
 

Appendix 1

School Geography Education Projects, Initiatives and Journals

ARGUS (Activities and Readings in the Geography of the United States)
(http://www.aag.org/argus/argus.html)
funded by the National Science Foundation and developed at the University of Minnesota under the leadership of Dr. Phil Gersmehl. The aim of the project is to have students learn to use the concepts and skills of geography by analyzing real world issues in both historical and contemporary contexts. The ARGUS materials are designed to be used in secondary school social studies classes, teacher training courses in geography, and introductory higher education courses. The project is in a new phase, ARGWORLD, developing activities and readings for the entire world aimed at middle school students
AGTA (Australian Geography Teachers' Association) and its Awareness Week
The AGTA is the overarching body which represents all the state geography teaching associations and promotes geography and geography education throughout Australia. AGTA holds a biennial conference (the next one is in Sydney in January 2000) and sponsors the journal Geographical Education and a Geography Awareness Week each year for schools. Contact for Sydney 2000 is Geoff Conolly ( gconolly@qzmail.com.au)
American High School Geography Project
funded by the National Science Foundation was completed in the late 1960s and widely disseminated across the United States in the 1970s. Despite excellent support through staff development, the innovative project that modelled geography research methods and perspectives was not widely adopted. Bits and pieces of it are still in use in classrooms but it is out of print and unavailable.
CTI (Computers in Teaching Initiative Centre for Geography, Geology and Meteorology)
(http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/cti/index.html)
This is one of 24 subject-based centres established to support academics and departments wanting to integrate communications and information technology into their teaching.
COBRIG (Council of British Geography) and its Seminars
COBRIG is the organisation which represents all those bodies concerned with geography and geographical education in England, Wales and Scotland.  Northern Ireland is loosely affiliated to COBRIG and efforts are being made to strengthen links.  There are currently 8 member organisations, including the GA and the RGS-IBG. COBRIG provides a forum for discussion and exchange between countries, organisations and sectors of education.  It represents the interests of geography at national and international levels and identifies issues which need concerted action.  The Seminars are held biennially as a forum for discussion and exchange, particularly between schools and higher education.  The next one is planned for 2000.  Contact COBRIG generally Neil Simmonds (tel/fax (44) (0)1451 860265; COBRIG Seminars and subsequent publications Eleanor Rawing (EleRawling@aol.com).
Dearing Report July 1997
(http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ncihe/)
Sir Ron (now Lord) Dearing chaired the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education.  The report covers a wide range of proposed reforms in HE.  There is a focus on the importance of learning and teaching in many of the chapters but in particular in the sections on Students and Learning and on the nature of Programmes.
DfEE Project: Key Skills in Geography in Higher Education
(http://www.chelt.ac.uk/gdn)
The DfEE (UK Gov. Department for Education and Employment) has funded a number of projects in relation to schools and higher education to explore the practical aspects of implementing key skills. This project is funded by the DfEE for two years (1998-2000) to develop and disseminate models of good practice for embedding key skills in higher education geography curricula.  The project team is based at Cheltenham and Gloucester College of Higher Education. (Project Director; Mick Healey). The work is being undertaken with the GDN consortium of geography departments. A proposal for a key skills core for A Levels is under development.
Geoed
A mediated e-mail network allowing members to communicate and collaborate on issues relating to geography in education
GDN (Geography Discipline Network)
(http://www.chelt.ac.uk/gdn)
This is a consortium of nine universities and colleges of higher education concerned with the development and dissemination of good practice in learning, teaching and assessment in geography, based at Cheltenham & Gloucester College of Higher Education. Director: Mick Healey (mhealey@chelt.ac.uk.
GENIP (Geography Education National Implementation Project
(http://genip.tamu.edu)
This is a steering committee made up of the four US professional geography organizations, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, the National Council for Geographic Education, and the National Geographic Society. GENIP works to coordinate the education efforts of all four groups, particularly to promote and disseminate the National Geography Standards: Geography for Life.
Geography Education Summits (USA)
In 1994 and again in 1995, two geography education summits were held on the campus of Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos, Texas. The purpose of the meetings was to discuss ways to promote geography education particularly in light of the publication of the National Geography Standards in October 1994. The proceedings of the first summit are collected in the publication A Decade of Reform in Geographic Education: Inventory and Prospect (Bednarz and Peterson, 1995).
GA (Geographical Association) (Action Week, Land Use UK project and Conferences)
(http://www.geography.org.uk/home.htm)
Founded in 1893, it exists to further the study and teaching of geography in all categories of educational institution from school to university in the UK and beyond.   The main emphasis of its work has tended to be school education (primary, secondary and teacher education) and particularly in recent years to support the implementation of the National Geography Curriculum.  The GA publishes a wide range of guidance and resources material for teachers, produces 3 Journals (Primary Geographer, Teaching Geography and Geography), runs and annual conference and supports and helps teachers on a day to day basis through a network of branches, regions and national events.  Contact Chief Executive: Martin Curry, 160 Solly Street, Sheffield.
Geography Awareness Week in USA
Since its inception as a Los Angeles area event by Kit and Cathy Salter in 1985, Geography Awareness Week, sponsored by the National Geographic Society (http://www.nationalgeographic.com) has been an attempt to focus public attention on the dearth of geography education in US public schools and to give students an opportunity to learn about specific aspects of geography through exploration of a theme. In 1998, the theme was People, Places, and Patterns: Geography Puts the Pieces Together and featured the use of GIS as a way to explore the world (http://www.esri.com)
Geography Alliances (USA)
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/education/alliance.html).
The National Geographic Society initiated the Alliance movement in 1986 to improve geography education nationwide. Fifty four Alliances with a total membership in excess of 150,000 teachers and university faculty exist in all US states, Puerto Rico, and in Canada. Each Alliance is the energy centre for local and statewide efforts to make geography well taught and well learned by all students. The Alliances achieve this goal by giving teachers the knowledge, skills, and materials they need through intensive summer institutes, one-day conferences, and other staff development opportunities
Geography 16-19 Project
This schools Council Project based at the Institute of Education, University of London 1976-85, developed a curriculum framework for 16-19 geography, encompassing a people-environment issue based approach to geography and an active enquiry approach to learning.  A Geography 16-19 A level syllabus was produced and a version of this is still popular (Edexcell examining group); it also influenced the production of a whole range if 16-19 syllabuses and courses and led to a wide range of '16-19' resources and teaching materials. (Naish, Rawling and Hart, 1987).
Geography 14-18 (Bristol) Project
A Schools Council Project focused (despite its title) on the 14-16 age range and based during 1970-75, at the University of Bristol Department of Education.  It emphasised the professional development of teachers rather than any particular course or materials; however curriculum guidance, resources and eventually an examination syllabus (GCSE) were produced. (See GCSE course now run by Midland Examining Group, England and Hickman, Reynolds and Tolley (1973).
Geography for Young School Leaver (Avery Hill) Project
A Schools Council Project 1970-75 at the Avery Hill College of Education.  Its focus was initially the less able and less motivated 14-16 year olds, but its highly innovative teaching materials and approaches were taken up more widely for pupils of all abilities.  There is still a GCSE syllabus based on Avery Hill and offered by the Midlands and Welsh Examining Boards in England and Wales. (See Boardman, 1988).
Geography Schools and Industry Project
This project was funded by industry and business and run by the Geographical Association.  It was based at the Oxford University Department of Educational Studies 1984-91 (Project Director Graham Corney).  The emphasis was on using geography as a medium for developing economic understanding, work-related skills and political literacy.  Schools worked closely with local business and the community.  The project book published by the GA, explains the approach and gives examples of teaching/learning materials (Corney, 1992).
GIGI (Geographic Inquiry into Global Issues)
A project funded by the National Science Foundation and directed by Dr. David Hill of the University of Colorado that has produced middle school curriculum units focused on integrating regional understanding of the world with inquiry into significant geographic concepts. The materials, initially published by the Encyclopedia Britannica, are no longer available for purchase. The high quality of the lessons and innovative approach to teaching will live on in the ARGWORLD project of which Dr. Hill is co-director.
GA/NCET Geography and IT Project
(http://www.geography.org.uk/home.htm for GA and http://www.becta.org.uk/ for BECTA)
A project managed jointly by the National Council for Educational Technology (NCET) and the Geographical Association (GA), funded by the Department for Education and Employment IT in Schools Unit 1993-96.  It pioneered the notion of 'a minimum entitlement to IT through geography' and has produced a range of affordable curriculum materials to support this, including software for use in primary and secondary schools in the UK and curriculum guidance.  NCET now has become BECTA, The British Educational Computing and Technology Agency.
Human Dimensions of Global Change project, Clark University
(http://aag.org/HDGC/Hands_On.html)
This focused on developing active learning materials and was appropriately called the Hands-On! Project. Staff at Clark University held summer workshops to encourage collaborative production of modules for teaching at tertiary level. Some of the modules have been made available through the VGD.
IGU-CGE (International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Education)
(http://fehps.une.edu.au/P/igu/IGU.html)
IGU-CGE (International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Education) After four years' work by the Commission on Geographical Education, the International Geographical Union ratified an International Charter on Geographical Education in 1992. The Preface to the Charter states: "Convinced that geographical education is indispensable for the development of responsible and active citizens in the present and future world, conscious that geography can be an informing enabling and stimulating subject at all levels in education and contributes to a lifelong enjoyment and understanding of our world; aware that students require increasing international competence in order to ensure effective cooperation on a broad range of economic, political, cultural and environmental issues in a shrinking world; concerned that geographical education is neglected in some parts of the world and lacks structure and coherence in others; ready to assist colleagues in counteracting geographical illiteracy in all countries of the world; supporting the principles set out in the Charter of the United nations, the Universal declaration of Human Rights, the Constitution of UNESCO, the UNESCO recommendations concerning education for International Understanding, Cooperation and peace, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and many national curricula and statements on geographical education; comments this International Charter on Geographical Education to all people of the world". Since its promulgation, the Charter has been translated into well over 20 languages and has formed part of curriculum deliberations in all continents.
INLT (International network for learning and teaching in geography in higher education)
(Hay, Foote and Healey paper)The focus of a symposium to be held in Hawaii in March 1999
National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE)
(http://www.ncge.org).
Established in 1915, NCGE "works to enhance the status and quality of geography teaching and learning" (NCGE 1998). NCGE publishes the Journal of Geography, a journal that focuses on both K-12 and higher education related issues, holds annual conferences, and cooperates with other organizations with similar goals through GENIP.
National Geography Curriculum
(http://www.qca.org.uk)
The Education Reform Act of 1998 established a National Curriculum with programmes of study and attainment targets for 10 National Curriculum subjects for pupils 5-16 years.  Although changes have been made to the detail of what is required, geography is still a statutory National Curriculum subject and so compulsory for all pupils of 5-14 years of age in state maintained schools.  There is one attainment target (geography) with standards specified in 8 level descriptions.  The detailed content of what to teach is set out in the programmes of study for 5-7 year olds (key state 1), 7-11 year olds (key stage 2) and 11-14 year olds (key stage 3).  Content is outlined under the headings of places, themes and skills (see DFE, 1995 and WO 1995).
National Geographic Society (NGS)
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com)
in Washington DC became involved in geography education in 1985 because of the interest of then president Gilbert M. Grosvenor. The interest blossomed into a single large effort to enhance geography education through the Alliance movement. The Society has committed over $20 million to the campaign for geography education since 1985.  National Summer Institutes have been an important element of the strategy adopted by the NGS.
National Geography Bee (USA)
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/geographybee/index.html)
is only one effort of the National Geographic Society directed at making students excited about geography. The Bee is designed for students in grades 4-8. The Society has also initiated a research-based competition for high school students called the GeoChallenge (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/geochallenge) and an international geography bee that the Canadian team won last year.
National Geography Standards
The US National Education Goals (http://www.negp.gov/), issued in 1989, called for all the nation's children to improve their achievement in core subjects (mathematics, language, arts, science, history and geography by 2000.  The National Geography Standards were set to measure progress toward world class performance in geography.  The Standards were prepared through a broad national and international consensus process under the aegis of the AAG, AGS, NCGE, and NGS.  Issued in 1994, they have been instrumental in developing high quality geography instruction on a state-by-state basis throughout the US.
Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (and SCAA) (UK)
(http://www.qca.org.uk)
QCA, London, came into being in 1997 bringing together the work of the former National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) and the School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (SCAA).  QCA's brief is to advise the Secretary of State for Education and Employment on all matters affecting the school curriculum, pupil assessment and publicly funded qualifications in schools, colleges and workplaces.  QCA publishes a wide range of information and guidance documents.  There are professional officers who deal with the National Curriculum subjects and for geography there are two officers; John Westaway and Eleanor Rawling; contact westawayj@qca.org.uk and rawlinge@qca.org.uk
Quality Assurance Agency (QAA)
(http://www.niss.ac.uk/education/qaa)
The QAA was founded in 1997 and aims to promote continuous improvement in the quality and standards of higher education provision.  It carries out institutional and subject reviews and supports a range of activities focused on quality enhancement.  Currently it is working with subjects to develop benchmark information on subject standards.
Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)
(http://www.rgs.org/)
The society is based in London where it operates at regional, national and international levels to support research, education and training in Geography.
Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE) (Australia)
This is the name given to one of a number of "key learning areas" created as a result of attempts by the Australian Federal Government in 1989 to achieve "Common and Agreed Goals of Schooling" amongst the states and territories. Studies of Society and Environment as a "key learning area" was intended to embrace those areas of understanding encompassed by history, geography, civics, economics, commerce, anthropology and sociology. While the original concept included no assumptions about how the key learning area should be promoted in schools, it was seized by those who believe in integrated social studies as a way to bring about social change and in some states and territories the concept became conflated with a new integrated subject. The resultant disagreements and confusions have resulted in each state and territory implementing the policy in markedly different ways.
Virtual Field Course Project
(http://www.geog.le.ac.uk/vfc/index_2.html)
The Virtual Fieldcourse Project is jointly based at Leicester University, Birkbeck College and Oxford Brookes University. It is  creating a combination of tools to enable educators to enhance and supplement the fieldwork experience.  Examples of the work can be viewed at the website.
Virtual Geography Department (VGD)
( http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/virtdept/contents.html)
The VGD aims to develop ways for geographers to share materials and use the world wide web.  High quality materials are available to students and educators. The VGD also promotes collaborative research. Director: Ken Foote (k.foote@mail.utexas.edu)

Journals:

Geography
The journal of the Geographical Association published four times a year.
Geographical Education
The Journal of the Australian Geography Teachers' Association (AGTA).  This journal is published once per year and distributed to all members of state and territory affiliates (Geography Teachers' Associations) and a number of overseas subscribers. Articles embrace both practical teaching suggestions, reports of research of direct relevance ot practicing teachers and wider issues of education policy pertaining to geography. Editor: Tammy Kwan, School of Professional Studies, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (t.kwan@qut.edu.au)
IRGEE (International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education):
Published three times a year by Channel View Publications, Frankfurt Lodge, Clevedon Hall, Victoria Road, Clevedon, UK. Email: multi-@multi.demon.co.uk. Editorial inquiries to Dr. John Lidstone: Email: j.lidstone@qut.edu.au
Journal of Geography:
the publication of the National Council for Geographic Education. Despite perception that the Journal is directed at school geography, most of its articles are general reviews of significant geographic topics or suggestions for teaching higher education. In the last half decade, increased emphasis on geography education research and scholarship has altered the nature of the articles somewhat. The current editor is Dr. Jonathan Leib at Florida State University (jleib@garnet.acns.fsu.edu)
JGHE (Journal of Geography in Higher Education)
(http://www.carfax.co.uk)
Published three times a year by Carfax, it provides a forum for geographers in higher education to discuss common educational interests, to present the results of educational research and to advocate new ideas. Editors: Hugh Matthews (hugh.matthews@nene.ac.uk) and Ian Livingstone (ian.livingstone@nene.ac.uk). Abstracts of all main articles published in jghe are on the GDN Web pages (JGHE abstracts)
Teaching Geography
A specialist journal of the Geographical Association aimed at secondary school teachers and containing teaching/learning ideas, resources and articles about current developments and trends in geography education.  Editor: Elisabeth Barratt Hacking (Contact via GA Tel: (44) (0)1142 2960088 or GA Website). Note Primary Geographer is a journal for primary teachers and also published by the GA.

 

Appendix 2:   More about the authors of this paper

Sue Burkill
stasmb@lib.marjon.ac.uk
Sue Burkill is the head of the geography department at the College of St Mark and St John, a higher education college with an important teacher training sector. She has worked with teachers and other teacher educators on a number of geography and ICT projects over the past twenty years. In the last few years she has worked collaboratively with Fontys, a higher education college in Tilburg, the Netherlands to prepare the curriculum and materials for teachers taking part in professional development courses.
Eleanor Rawling
EleRawling@aol.com
Eleanor Rawling is Principal Subject Officer for Geography at the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, London.  She is also an Honorary Research Associate at the University of Oxford Department of Educational Studies.  She has experience in working in curriculum development (Geography 16-19 Project 1976-85; Geography Schools and Industry Project 1987-91) and has strong links with the Geographical Association (President 1991-92) Her current work includes the review of the National Geography Curriculum, developing curriculum guidance for school teachers, outlining geography's contribution to citizenship and education for sustainable development and promoting dialogue with higher education through COBRIG initiatives.
Sarah Bednarz
s-bednarz@tamu.edu
Sarah Bednarz is an assistant professor of geography at Texas A&M University.  She taught for 14 years in urban, suburban, and rural middle and high schools in Illinois and Texas before completing her Ph.D. in 1992.  Since 1986 she has been active in the Texas Alliance for Geographic Education and currently serves as project coordinator for GENIP and as director of a project to integrate NASA missions and results with the National Geography Standards
John Lidstone
j.lidstone@qut.edu.au
John Lidstone is a senior lecturer in the Faculty of Education at the Queensland University of Technology, where he teaches mainly research methodology courses at postgraduate level. He was for many years a high school teacher of geography in England and taught geography curriculum and teaching methods to preservice teachers in Australia. He co-edits International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, is Executive Secretary of the International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Education, Chairs the Education Committee of the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland and has a keen interest in producing curriculum materials in geography both in text and electronic form. His academic hobby is teaching about disasters.

Acknowledgement

The text of this paper was converted into Hypertext Markup Language by Tony Atkin of the College of St. Mark and St. John.

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