JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHY ABSTRACTS 1991

DeBlij, H.J. (1991) 90(1), pp.2-9.
Fredrich, B.E. (1991) 90(1), pp.11-15.
Brothers, T.S. (1991) 90(1), pp.18-26
Harrington Jnr.,J.A., Cerveny, R.S. & Hobgood, J.S. (1991) 90(1), pp.27-31.
Sublett, M.D. (1991) 90(2), pp.50-53
Salter, K. (1991) 90(2), pp.55-59.
King, G.Q. (1991) 90(2), pp.66-72.
Walsh, S.J., Vitek, J.D. & Panciera, S.E. (1991) 90(2), pp.82-90.


DeBlij, H.J. (1991) Africa's Geomosaic Under Stress. Journal of Geography, 90(1), pp.2-9.

ABSTRACT:

In 35 years, the colonial map of Subsaharan Africa has been transformed into a patchwork of four dozen independent states, many subject to severe devolutionary stresses. Domino effects hastened the decolonization process; a short-lived but significant buffer zone slowed it in southern Africa. During the period of Africa's transition, polarization in South Africa (socially as well as spatially) intensified. Core-periphery contrasts in the republic deepened; whereas integration and modernization increasingly mark the South Africa's core areas, the prospect for the periphery is bleak and instability may develop. Insurgencies, refugee flows, and environmental stresses buffet a politico-geographical framework that may appear stable on maps, but which may collapse from within.

Key words: domino theory, buffer zone, insurgent state, devolution, boundaries, core-periphery, centripetal-centrifugal forces, front line states.

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Fredrich, B.E. (1991) Food and Culture: Using Ethnic Recipes to Demonstrate the Post-Columbian Exchange of Plants and Animals. Journal of Geography, 90(1), pp.11-15.

ABSTRACT:

The impact of the post-Columbian exchange on both New World and Old World cultures can be examined through college student analyses of ethnic recipes. Working independently or in a classroom exercise, the student selects a recipe, identifies the world region of domestication of each ingredient listed, determines to what extent the ethnic recipe is comprised of native foods, and suggests what cultural processes may be involved in the evolution of the recipe. Information sources, lists of domesticated biota by region and type, and two sample recipes are presented to illustrate the methodology.

Key Words: food and culture, ethnic recipes, post-Columbian biotic exchange.

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Brothers, T.S. (1991) The U.S. General Land Office Survey as a Basis for Biogeography Exercises. Journal of Geography, 90(1), pp.18-26.

ABSTRACT:

The U.S. General Land Office Survey is perhaps the only general source of data for reconstruction of local presettlement vegetation patterns in most of the United States. It is also a convenient basis for student exercises in introductory university biogeography courses because it eases many of the practical constraints of field data collection. I illustrate use of the survey by describing a sequence of three exercises developed for a recent biogeography course at Indiana University, Indianapolis. Exercise I uses survey witness-tree records to correlate tree distributions with environmental variables and to evaluate spatial interaction between species. Exercise 2 reconstructs physiognomic vegetation patterns and forest composition from witness-tree records and surveyors' plat maps. Exercise 3 is a field comparison of present human-altered vegetation patterns with the original patterns described by the survey.

Key Words: biogeography, U.S. General Land Office Survey, presettlement vegetation.

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Harrington Jnr.,J.A., Cerveny, R.S. & Hobgood, J.S. (1991) Competitive Learning Experiences: The Role of Weather Forecasting Contests in Geography Programs. Journal of Geography, 90(1), pp.27-31.

ABSTRACT:

Weather forecasting contests provide a useful pedagogic strategy for those involved in teaching about the atmosphere, weather, and climate. Competitions give students a chance to test their knowledge of important concepts and their ability to develop complex logical constructs about atmospheric processes. Suggestions concerning the scope of weather forecasting contests are provided for the grade school, secondary school, and college/university levels. Descriptions of a successful contest at the university level and the benefits associated with contests are provided.

Key words: contests, competition, weather forecasting, geography programs.

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Sublett, M.D. (1991) Incorporating Student Logbooks into Geography Classes. Journal of Geography, 90(2), pp.50-53

ABSTRACT:

I began assigning logbooks many years ago, to a special field geography class, and have since become so enamored with the idea of logs (journals, class diaries) that I now require them from all my students . In this essay my purpose is to provide encouragement and assistance for geographic educators who might wish to make logbooks a part of their teaching arsenals. Benefits to us, as teachers, can include feedback about the content and process of our courses, insights about our students, and the pure pleasure of reading what their fertile minds produce. For our students, benefits can include the chance to better their writing skills; a feeling of worth about their thoughts on geographic issues; and, perhaps, a lifelong interest in the keeping of a daily journal. Teachers should choose, from the long list of suggestions I provide here, ideas appropriate for their particular instructional setting.

Key words: logbook, journal, geographic writing.

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Salter, K. (1991) The University and the Alliance: A Study in Contradictions. Journal of Geography, 90(2), pp.55-59.

ABSTRACT:

The continuing interest in the activities of the state geographic alliances supported by the National Geographic Society has let to the observance of a number of apparent contradictions. The basic themes in these incongruities relate to the major role assigned to classroom teachers who have, in many cases, had only modest course work in geography. There is, as well, concern over the axial role played by the National Geographic Society since professional geographers have been inclined to consider its geography to be quite distinct from academic geography as expressed by the professoriate. These considerations and five additional perceived contradictions are discussed in light of the true goals and accomplishments of this reform movement that is having such an impact on the American educational landscape.

Key words: Geographic Alliance, National Geographic Society, geography education, teacher training, educational reform.

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King, G.Q. (1991) Geography and GIS Technology. Journal of Geography, 90(2), pp.66-72.

ABSTRACT:

At the forefront of the digital information revolution in geography is the geographic information system (GIS). The advent of GIS technology has made it possible to efficiently integrate, manage, and analyze geographical information from maps, imagery, and text. The GIS that contains a high-resolution database is a powerful tool for solving spatial problems. The impact of GIS technology on the subfields of cartography and remote sensing has already been dramatic. The adoption of GIS technology by geographers will bring many benefits but also some problems. GIS technology is very technical in nature, but many geographers are not technically oriented. Conversely, many geography students are clamoring to learn GIS technology at the expense of their overall geographical education. A challenge facing geographers is to balance education so that technical subjects do not conflict with mainstream geography subjects. The United States is moving toward an information-based economy. Most future information will be in digital form. If geographers are to efficiently access this information, they must acquire tools like the geographic information system.

Key words: geography, geographic information systems, cartography, remote sensing.

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Walsh, S.J., Vitek, J.D. & Panciera, S.E. (1991) Variability of Soil Te mperature: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis. Journal of Geography, 90(2), pp.82-90.

ABSTRACT:

Soil temperature directly responds to atmospheric temperature, although a variety of climatic and soil variables influence actual soil temperature. Whereas most relationships about soil temperature have been established at a point, this research assesses the relationships of soil temperature at three depths to a variety of climatic variables along a 200-km transect in central Oklahoma. Our observations support known conclusions that soil temperatures increased at all depths from east to west. Sub-surface temperature changes lagged one week behind atmospheric conditions. A precipitation event of 2.0 cm is required to have a significant impact on soil temperature at all depths. The location of the field site along the transect and the week of data collection explained significant amounts of soil temperature variability at each of the three depths evaluated. Elevation, soil texture, and antecedent environmental conditions prior to data collection were combined with spatial (site location) and temporal (sample week) variables to explain additional levels of soil temperature variability.


Key words: field sampling, environmental transect, spatial temporal/biophysical analysis, multiple regression models.

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The GDN would like to thank the Journal of Geography for allowing us to reproduce abstracts from the journal.

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