JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHY ABSTRACTS 1993

Hartman, J. & Vogeler, I. (1993) 92(1), pp.2-12.
Hayes, D.A. (1993) 92(1), pp.13-15.
Beach, T. & Gersmehl, P. (1993) 92(1), pp.16-22.
Enedy, J.D. (1993) 92(1), pp.23-27.
Gossette,F. & Dykema Wheeler, J. (1993) 92(1), pp.28-34.
Heatwole, C.A. (1993) 92(2), pp.50-55.
Gregg, M. & Leinhardt, G. (1993) 92(2), pp.56-63.
Hathaway, J. (1993) 92(2), pp.75-79.
White, K.L. & Simms, M. (1993) 92(2), pp.80-85.
Bishop, M., Hubbard, R.M., Ward, J.L., Binkley, M.S. & Moore, T.K. (1993) 92(3), pp.102-109.
Chiodo, J.J. (1993) 92(3), pp.110-117.
Haddock, K.C. (1993) 92(3), pp.118-120.
Malanson, G.P., Pavlik, C. & Ceilley, D. (1993) 92(3), pp.129-138.
Gesler, W. & Kaplan, A. (1993) 92(3), pp.139-145.
Lanegran, D.A. & St. Peter, P.H. (1993) 92(5), pp.206-212.
Quattrochi, D.A. (1993) 92(5), pp.206-212.
Gold, J.R., Haigh, M.J. & Jenkins, A. (1993) 92(5), pp.213-216.
Carstensen Jnr., L.W., Shaffer, C.A., Morrill, R.W. & Fox, E.A. (1993) 92(5), pp.217-222.
Lee, J.A.& Jones, L.L. (1993) 92(5), pp.223-226.
Paul, B.K. (1993) 92(5), pp.227-230.


Hartman, J. & Vogeler, I. (1993) Where in the World is the U.S. Secretary of State? Journal of Geography, 92(1), pp.2-12.

ABSTRACT:

Rather than use fantasy games to teach geography, teachers can use real world events to construct their own games. The travels of the U.S. Secretaries of State from 1866 to 1990 show distinctive spatial patterns by world regions. countries, and cities. The reasons for and dates of these travels also vary by place. The United States considers some countries and cities far more important than others. The foreign policy interests of the United States, as represented by the travels of the Secretaries of State, show striking world core-periphery relations. These patterns of U.S. geopolitics help students explain and predict why some places appear more often in the news and why some countries receive more foreign aid assistance from the U.S. government.

Key words: U.S. Secretaries of State, spheres of U.S. influence, geopolitics, world regions.

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Hayes, D.A. (1993) Freehand Maps Are for Teachers and Students Alike. Journal of Geography, 92(1), pp.13-15.

ABSTRACT:

Freehand maps are recommended for illustrating geographic concepts. The chief advantage of freehand maps is that they can be used to highlight selected information in order to accomplish particular explanatory purposes. Freehand maps may be used productively by students as well as by teachers. With freehand maps, geographic concepts may be presented simply and directly, yet forcefully and clearly.

Key words: teaching technique, map skills, blackboard maps, freehand maps, sketch maps.

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Beach, T. & Gersmehl, P. (1993) Soil Erosion, T Values, and Sustainability: A Review and Exercise. Journal of Geography, 92(1), pp.16-22.

ABSTRACT:

Accelerated soil erosion is both a severe environmental problem in many parts of the world and a classic problem of physical geography. This article reviews some central issues of soil erosion and soil loss tolerance and presents an exercise on the geography of soil erosion. The goal of the review section is to update and recast the questions of soil erosion in light of current physical geography and environmental awareness. We review environmental problems of accelerated erosion, the essential processes of soil loss, why soil loss prediction is necessary, and tolerance values and land sustainability. The main goals of the exercise are to teach students about the physical and cultural components of soil erosion and sustainable land use. In this exercise students 1) estimate soil losses based on included tables for three regions across the United States, and 2) answer questions about the factors of soil loss, soil conservation, and sustainability. The exercise also integrates the geography of soil erosion with five broader conceptual questions from physical geography.

Key words: soil erosion, soil conservation, T value, sustainability, Universal Soil Loss Equation.

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Enedy, J.D. (1993) Geography and Math: A Technique for Finding Population Centers. Journal of Geography, 92(1), pp.23-27.

ABSTRACT:

Methods and procedures to teach geography have become increasingly important as non-geography teachers attempt to present geographic concepts in history, literature, language, math, and science courses. The mathematical concepts of mean and media are easy measures that can be used especially by the mathematician or geographer to also teach the concept of mean center. Population data for national administrative units such as states of the U.S. and provinces of China applied to a procedure to produce mean centers reveal locations and densities that can be used to compare these countries of approximately the same physical size.

Key words: mean center, median center, population, China, density.

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Gossette,F. & Dykema Wheeler, J. (1993) Computer Mapping in a Regional Geography Course. Journal of Geography, 92(1), pp.28-34.

ABSTRACT:

Regional geography courses often include mapping exercises which reinforce students' knowledge of important distributions and familiarize them with the use of maps as geographic analysis tools. In addition, courses in geographic methods have become computer-oriented and the use of computers, especially desktop microcomputers, for mapping is now commonplace. However, computer mapping is not widely used in general education courses, which reach non-geography majors. Yet mapping by computer has great potential for improving efficiency in presenting information, teaching concepts, and developing mapping skills while at the same time enhancing student interest. This paper discusses some of the challenges of incorporating computer mapping into the mainstream geography curriculum and presents some preliminary results of an ongoing experiment in using choropleth mapping software in a lower division regional course. First, we highlight some of the educational objectives of mapping exercises which can be enhanced using computers. We also discuss problems with using commercial mapping software in the general geography classroom. Next, we describe a mapping program developed by the authors, and the ways that the software was used in a Geography of North America course. Finally, we attempt to evaluate the computer-mapping experience compared to "by-hand" methods with respect to the goals of the mapping exercise.

Key words: computer mapping regional geography geographic education .

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Heatwole, C.A. (1993) Changes in Mental Maps. Journal of Geography, 92(2), pp.50-55.

The subject of change in mental maps has received little attention. This article presents five maps of state residential desirability that span the years 1977-1991 and briefly analyzes the attitudinal changes that they reveal. Comparison of the mental maps of former and current students may enhance class discussions concerning attitudes about places, how place perceptions change over time, and the consequences of both. A methodology for making simple, yet colorful and effective, mental maps is presented, as are suggestions for classroom use.

Key words: mental map, residential desirability, behavioral geography.

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Gregg, M. & Leinhardt, G. (1993) Geography in History: What is the Where? Journal of Geography, 92(2), pp.56-63.

ABSTRACT:

This study provides empirical information about the extent of geography instruction present in history classrooms. Techniques of protocol analysis were applied to oral references to geography made by teachers and students in 44 U. S. and European history lessons in several grades. The references were coded according to GENIP's five themes plus a sixth coding category for explicit references to maps. Two types of references were found: passing references, which merely mentioned a geographic issue or feature, and substantive references, in which geography was taught or played a substantial role. That 550 geographic references occur in these lessons may explain why so many history teachers believe that they are adequately integrating geography and history. However, 75 percent of all the references were passing and not substantive. We conclude that the core epistemological events for learning and reasoning in, about, and with geography are not being taught adequately in history lessons.

Key words: protocol analysis, geography in history, GENIP, classroom discourse, learning geography.

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Hathaway, J. (1993) Using Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart in Introductory Geography Courses. Journal of Geography, 92(2), pp.75-79.

ABSTRACT:

Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart can be productively used in introductory geography courses at the university or high school level. This paper discusses why and how this novel is used in an introductory course. This discussion includes the use of fiction in the geography classroom, a summary and analysis of Things Fall Apart, and a personal account of how the book is taught.Things Fall Apart tells the story of traditional Igbo life when colonialism and Christianity first penetrated eastern Nigeria at the turn of the century. Classroom discussion of Things Fall Apart centers on an explication of its deep sense of place and on an examination of the book within the context of political geography. A primary goal is to move students toward a deeper understanding and empathy for Third World cultures.

Key words: pedagogy, fiction, Chinua Achehe, Things Fall Apart, Igho, Nigeria, Third World, sense of place, political geography, colonialism.

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White, K.L. & Simms, M.(1993) Geographic Information Systems as an Educational Tool. Journal of Geography, 92(2), pp.80-85.

ABSTRACT:

When a Geographic Information System (GIS) is implemented in a classroom environment, valuable skills such as creative thought and problem solving can be encouraged. A group of college students were given the problem of siting a sanitary landfill for Brazos County, Texas, utilizing the technology of a GIS. They decided on the criteria needed and how the data and criteria would fit into a GIS. With minimal experience, they developed a data base and completed the task in a manner acceptable to private industry and governmental agencies. The use of GIS provided a physical product displaying the interrelationships between regulations, physical environment, group actions, and individual thinking.

Key words: Geographic Information System, creative thinking, environmental analysis, sanitary landfills.

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Bishop, M., Hubbard, R.M., Ward, J.L., Binkley, M.S. & Moore, T.K. (1993) Computer Network Resources for Physical Geography Instruction. Journal of Geography, 92(3), pp.102-109.

ABSTRACT:

Rapid changes in computer-related technologies are having a tremendous impact on geographic education. Educators are increasingly using new data products and integrating hardware and software into physical geography courses, thereby improving teaching effectiveness and providing students with hands-on experience. This article introduces geographers to the Internet computer network and current network resources that are available cost free. It also demonstrates how to access and use these materials in a physical geography course. Given the current economic conditions and university downsizing, educators at most institutions can introduce appropriate software and data into geography courses in a relatively short period of time.

Key words: Internet, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), image display and mapping software, satellite imagery, weather data, and earth science data.

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Chiodo, J.J. (1993) Mental Maps: Preservice Teachers' Awareness of the World. Journal of Geography, 92(3), pp.110-117.

ABSTRACT:

The central issue raised in this article relates to teachers' geographic literacy. One aspect of geographic literacy is an individual's knowledge of the world map as represented in a sketch map. This study represents a preliminary effort to assess the cognitive status of preservice social studies teachers' mental maps of the world. Using a Likert Scale to assess the students ' sketch maps, a variety of tests were used to analyze the data gathered. In general, all students had problems constructing a mental map of the world. The article concludes with suggestions on ways to improve the mental maps of teachers and students.

Key words: sketch maps, mental maps, preservice teachers, geographic literacy.

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Haddock, K.C. (1993) Teaching Geography of the Aged: A Suggested Resource. Journal of Geography, 92(3), pp.118-120.

ABSTRACT:

Retirement Places Rated, by David Savageau, is a publication that is adaptable for use in a course focusing in whole, or in part, on the aged population. This publication was written to guide retirees in their selections of retirement destinations. However, it can adequately serve as a required course reading, particularly when supplemented by additional materials. The methodology employed by Savageau, in assessing and ranking 151 established retirement destinations for seven major physical, cultural, and social environmental features of concern to retirees, is adaptable to the development of class projects. Two such projects, which have been successfully employed, are presented for the reader's review.

Key words: aged, retirement destinations, class projects.

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Malanson, G.P., Pavlik, C. & Ceilley, D. (1993), Introducing Students to Plant Geography: Polar Ordination Applied to Hanging Gardens. Journal of Geography, 92(3), pp.129-138.

ABSTRACT:

In biogeography, researchers often use gradient analysis to reveal relations between plant community structure and physical, disturbance, and spatial variables. Although the relations addressed are fundamental and pedagogically critical, the statistical ordination methods currently used to investigate these relations demand more mathematical and statistical expertise than most undergraduates have at their command. An early version of ordination is, however, easier for students to grasp and easier for instructors to teach. Here we demonstrate the application of this method to species abundance data from hanging gardens and hypothesized controlling factors. The results of the analysis indicate that the vegetative composition of infrequently flooded gardens may be related to locational variables, but the interpretation may be affected by multicollinearity, while that of frequently flooded gardens has much weaker relations to the environmental variables considered.

Key words: biogeography, plant geography, gradient analysis, ordination, geographic education.

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Gesler, W. & Kaplan, A. (1993) Computer Programming in a Spatial Analysis Course. Journal of Geography, 92(3), pp.139-145.

ABSTRACT:

We find that students taking spatial analysis courses have a fair knowledge of the use of computer software packages, but usually lack basic computer programming skills. This article sets out a sequence of four exercises of increasing difficulty which students can program using languages such as BASIC or dBASE. We also describe several spatial analysis course projects in which students developed their own computer code. Incorporating computer programming exercises in a spatial analysis course helps students to 1) come to terms with the complexity of the material, 2) clarify concepts, 3) understand the rationale behind calculations, 4) use their creative energies, and 5) gain confidence in their computer and mathematical skills.

Key words: computer programming, spatial analysis, teaching computer skills.

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Lanegran, D.A. & St. Peter, P.H. (1993) Travel, Tourism, and Geographic Field Work: Project Marco Polo. Journal of Geography, 92(4), pp.160-165.

ABSTRACT:

Travel is an important part of every geographer's life. This essay uses the concept of a life list as developed by Salter and Meserve to examine the impact of several landscapes in Egypt and Greece had on two members of the 1992 NGS Marco Polo expedition. The differences between travel and tourism are sketched, as is the potential of using travel as a way of teaching geography.

Key words: National Geographic Society, Marco Polo, Egypt, Greece, antiquities, Nile, Cairo, education, Delphi.

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Quattrochi, D.A. (1993) The Need for a Lexicon of Scale Terms in Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Geographic Information Systems. Journal of Geography, 92(5), pp.206-212.

ABSTRACT:

The concept of scale is fundamental to geography, yet the definitions for "scale" and related spatial terms can be confusing to those working in other spatial science disciplines. This is particularly true in the emerging multidisciplinary world of integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems, or IGIS's, where data of different types and at various spatial and temporal scales are combined to support complex space-time data analyses. Without a basic lexicon of accepted scale terms, working within an IGIS can breed confusion in the interpretation of data and the models that result from an IGIS construct. This paper provides some terminologies of scale that can be used as a framework for a multidisciplinary lexicon of accepted scaling terms and describes their relationships to an IGIS. It also illustrates how scaling terms can be potentially misunderstood when applied to geographic techniques that are used in disciplines related to geography.

Key words: scale, multiple scaling, remote sensing, IGIS.

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Gold, J.R., Haigh, M.J. & Jenkins, A. (1993) Ways of Seeing: Exploring Media Landscapes Through a Field-based Simulation. Journal of Geography, 92(5), pp.213-216.

ABSTRACT:

College students often have a limited appreciation of the way that the mass media construct images of place. This paper outlines a field simulation exercise that allows new geography students to confront the ways in which values shape media information. It requires students to take on the role of teams of journalists, working independently from one another, who are sent to an unfamiliar location to report on its landscapes and environments. It is so constructed that the teams unknowingly have been divided into two cultures: one seeking stories with an optimistic, upbeat character, the other searching for evidence of decline and decay. The aims and rules of the simulation are outlined, the necessary materials detailed, and the four phases of the exercise described. Possible extensions of the simulation are suggested.

Key words: media, values, images, environments, landscapes, unfamiliarity, simulation, journalism.

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Carstensen Jnr., L.W., Shaffer, C.A., Morrill, R.W. & Fox, E.A. (1993) Geosim: A GIS-based Simulation Laboratory for Introductory Geography. Journal of Geography, 92(5), pp.217-222.

ABSTRACT:

Project GeoSim is a multidisciplinary effort by members of Virginia Tech's Departments of Geography and Computer Science, College of Education, and Learn-ing Resources Center to develop computer-aided education (CAE) software for introductory geography and related classes. GeoSim laboratory exercises draw on the five fundamental themes of geography for their subject matter. The programs emphasize interactive learning combining the information capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with the techniques of computer simulation. The result is a series of geographic explorations that will make available some of the most exciting aspects of geography to a potential audience of 425 ,000 introductory geography students per year.

Key words: interactive learning, five fundamental themes, introductory geography, GIS, simulation.

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Lee, J.A.& Jones, L.L. (1993) Teaching the Process of Science in Geography Courses. Journal of Geography, 92(5), pp.223-226.

ABSTRACT:

There is a need for more effective methods for teaching the nature of scientific inquiry in geography classes. We suggest class projects that involve applying the scientific method from experimental design, to data identification and collection, to analysis, and finally to writing up the results. Our example project for college students is a test of a hypothesis dealing with the differences in the shape of longitudinal stream profiles between humid and arid regions. The actual hypothesis used, though, is less important than the process by which any hypothesis is tested. Students should learn that scientific methods rarely involve easy-to-follow instructions leading to obvious conclusions; instead, uncertainty and judgement calls are required at every step of the process.

Key words: science education, geography, stream profiles.

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Paul, B.K. (1993) Choropleth Map Review: A Class Exercise. Journal of Geography, 92(5), pp.227-230.

ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this exercise is to help students review some important aspects of choropleth maps that appear in a selected geographic journal for a specific time period. Through this exercise, students in a cartography course can identify the most common number of classes used for choropleth maps, the most popular method used to determine the class intervals, the most frequently used legend structure, and the most popular symbol used in choropleth maps. This exercise will provide an opportunity for the student to judge the published maps against accepted cartographic standards. The exercise can be used either as an altemative to or independently of the atlas review.

Key words: choropleth, choropleth maps.

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The GDN would like to thank the Journal of Geography for allowing us to reproduce abstracts from the journal.

Created by Claire Reid.
Page created 8th December 1999.
Last updated 11th May 2000.