Journal of Geography in Higher Education

Volume 21 Number 2 1997


Market Metaphors, Neo-liberalism and the Construction of Academic Landscapes in Aotearoa/New Zealand

LAWRENCE D. BERG & MICHAEL M. ROCHE, Te Whare Waananga o Manawatu/Massey University, Palmerston North, Aotearoa/New Zealand

ABSTRACT
New Zealand's far-reaching experiment with neo-liberal economic and social policies has become a model for many right-leaning economic commentators- and some governments-throughout the 'developed' world. We are highly critical of such sentiments, noting that the 'New Zealand experiment' has been anything but good for New Zealand itself: Our argument focuses upon the way that neo-liberal rhetorics of 'competitiveness' have reconstituted the landscape of academia in New Zealand. We suggest that such competition metaphors, which construct universities as 'knowledge businesses' and students as 'consumers', provide a wholly inappropriate model for university education. Instead, we suggest a reconstituted notion of 'collegiality' might provide the basis for a more inclusive construction of university education.

KEYWORDS
Aotearoa/New Zealand, economic rationality, landscape, metaphor, neo-liberalism, tertiary education policy.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


Breaking Through the A Level Effect: a first-year tutorial in student self-reflection

JOHN R. BRYSON, University of Birmingham, UK

ABSTRACT
The A level experience of geography is often structured around carefully written textbooks which provide comprehensive 'maps' to the discipline. Such a structured geography does not encourage sophisticated critical faculties and results in what might be termed the A level effect. Many of the learning outcomes of the first year of a degree programme are designed to remove the impact of this effect. This paper describes a new first-year tutorial designed to introduce students to techniques of self-reflection constructed around a critique of their A level experience of geography. The argument is that the introduction of reflective learning practices to first-year students has an impact on their performance, transforming many passive student listeners into proactive, enthusiastic learners.

KEYWORDS
Reflective learning, proactive learning, critical reading, first-year tutorials, A level effect.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


A Claim for the Case Method in the Teaching of Geography

RICHARD GRANT, Syracuse University, USA

ABSTRACT
The case method and use of cases offer geographers an exciting and innovative pedagogical approach. The case method is an interactive learning approach that promotes student discussion and shifts the emphasis from a teacher-centred to a student-centred classroom. Currently, this method is part of a growing trend in international affairs education, and preliminary evaluation of the approach has been highly positive. By applying the case method, educators can extrapolate connections between research and teaching, these being poorly realised links to date. In this paper the case method is outlined, the sources of cases and how to teach them are detailed, and the relevance of the case method for geography teaching and learning is evaluated.

KEYWORDS
Case method, geographic learning, pedagogy.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


Mapping the Place Knowledge of Teachers in Training

PATRICK WIEGAND & BERNADETTE STIELL, University of Leeds, UK

ABSTRACT
The professional knowledge base of student teachers is currently the subject of much debate. Map recall is used in this study as an exemplar of what is at issue in characterising students' professional knowledge in geography. A sample of 363 postgraduate student teachers were asked to draw a freehand sketch map of the British Isles. The maps were scored in terms of the number and definition of coastal features drawn and the relative area of each of the constituent political units. Significant differences in the map scores were found for gender, undergraduate degree subject and students' home region. Some of the implications for geography in higher education and teacher training are discussed.

KEYWORDS
Sketch maps, geography graduates, teacher training, professional knowledge.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


Geography and Lifelong Learning: a report on a survey of geography graduates

GORDON CLARK & MARTIN HIGGITT, Lancaster University, UK

ABSTRACT
Previous studies have revealed what employers have said they require in terms of career or transferable skills in their prospective employees when they leave university. This paper reports on a survey of groups of geographers who graduated one, five and 10 years ago from two different British institutions of higher education. The students identified the features of their geography training which had been of most value to them in their careers and pinpointed aspects which could have been better developed in their degree courses. Conclusions are drawn about the future of the geography curriculum in the light of the graduates' views on their 'graduateness' and their likely career patterns in the 21st century.

KEYWORDS
Careers, lifelong learning, curriculum, graduateness.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


Researchers and the Rural Poor: asking questions in the Third World

WILLIAM M. ADAMS & CHARLES C. MEGAW, University of Cambridge, UK

ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the theory and practice of rural socioeconomic surveys in the Third World. It offers a personal commentary on some practical problems and pitfalls that beset the would-be researcher in making the leap from seminar room to someone else's distant home. It highlights the close links between choice of research topic, field area and research methods, and the importance of the ethics of field research. It considers in particular questionnaire design.

KEYWORDS
Surveys, Third World, questionnaires, fieldwork, ethics.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


"The Dead Don't Answer Questionnaires": researching and writing historical geography

ALAN R. H. BAKER, University of Cambridge, UK

ABSTRACT
The focus of studies in historical geography upon some time or period in the past rather than in the present means that historical geography is constrained in ways that the practice of contemporary human geography is not. This paper considers some of the general problems encountered in researching and writing historical geography. In relation to research, it examines the identification of a research topic, and discusses the problems associated with making geographical interpretations from historical sources. It then addresses the issues which have to be resolved when writing historical geography. It concludes by affirming both the individual pleasure to be derived from work in historical geography and the mutual benefits to be gained from a dialogue between historical geographers and contemporary human geographers in their common search for historical understanding.

KEYWORDS
Historical geography, researching, writing.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


'GRADUATENESS' AND A CORE CURRICULUM FOR GEOGRAPHY?

R. J. Johnston, University of Bristol, UK

ABSTRACT
Geography is an academic discipline, not a profession, and one of its traditional strengths in British higher education is its use as a vehicle for the development of critical intellectual skills. These require neither a core curriculum nor standard assessment procedures and 'quality thresholds'. This feature should be defended against the short-term materialist and politically correct arguments of programmes seeking to define 'graduateness' and core curricula.

KEYWORDS
Graduateness, core curriculum.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


ROTTEN TO THE CORE: AGAINST A CORE CURRICULUM FOR GEOGRAPHY IN UK HIGHER EDUCATION

Tim Unwin, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

ABSTRACT
This paper examines some of the main reasons why a core curriculum for UK higher education is seen as being desirable, and challenges these arguments with particular reference to geography. It suggests that a core curriculum would be damaging for six main reasons: that problems exist over the identification of central elements which could provide the basis of a core; that the higher education experience should be enlightening rather than dehumanising; that the strength of geography as a very broad discipline would be damaged by the imposition of a core; that much of the most exciting geographical 'knowledge' is created at the research frontier rather than in any potential core; that there are problems over the choice of people who might determine any core; and that there are serious questions over precisely in whose interests a core might be created.

KEYWORDS
Core curriculum, higher education.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION IN GEOGRAPHY IN THE USA: AN INTRODUCTION

Dong-Ok Lee, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA

ABSTRACT
The increasing presence of students of diverse racial/ethnic and international origins in colleges and universities in the USA has prompted efforts to revise and create courses and curricula to respond to 'diversity' and introduce multicultural perspectives. In this Arena symposium we address current practices and the prospects for multicultural teaching in geography. Lee's introduction reviews the development of the diversity movement and the arguments advanced for and against multicultural education. She then focuses on the representation of minorities within geographic institutions in the USA. The papers that follow present the perspectives of both administrators and teaching faculty, recognising that change requires support and engagement across these levels. Corey examines how institutional priorities and programme developments in a large state university shape openings for interdisciplinary offerings to which geographers can contribute. McConnell reports the outcomes of his participation in a project to transform a course on the geography of the United States to one that addresses American pluralism. Darden advocates a particular 'social reconstructionist' vision in his development of an upper-level urban geography course. Berry takes up the pedagogical challenge of incorporating diverse voices into courses that highlight race, gender and ethnicity. In presenting their work, the authors hope to encourage other geographers to share approaches to curricular transformation and to strengthen efforts to diversify the make-up of the profession.

* 1997 Index

*Journal of Geography in Higher Education Cumulative Index


The Geography Discipline Network would also like to thank Taylor & Francis Ltd for permission to reproduce abstracts from the Journal of Geography in Higher Education

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