The Journal of Geography in Higher Education has a vision of being inclusive. This paper examines what the journal, throughout its history, has published on teaching and learning in relation to people and places referred to in contemporary scholarship as the 'Other'. It addresses themes of gender, race/ethnicity, sexuality, and the 'Third World', noting especially the surprising paucity of material on the latter. In particular, the article explores ways in which teaching addresses aspects of students' values and attitudes, and the importance of linking knowledge, emotion, experiential learning and action.
The ‘Other’, values, attitudes, experiential learning.
Role play is an effective teaching and learning technique. This paper discusses the purpose, design, implementation and value of an issues-based role play exercise in a first-year undergraduate topic at an Australian university. The exercise requires students to consider the implications for environment, economy and culture of a large-scale tourist development on the small South Pacific island of Rarotonga. Students work together in small groups developing a particular point of view and presenting their arguments to the whole class. The paper is based on the first two consecutive years of development. Changes were made in the second year following students' and tutors' comments on the initial exercise. The results of these changes, and the students' reactions to their learning, are discussed. Students' identification of the skills gained and their satisfaction with the exercise are analysed and suggestions for successful running of similar exercises are outlined.
Role play, tutorials, skills, negotiation, group work, communication, environment.
IAN FULLER, STEVE RAWLINSON & ROGER BEVAN, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
This paper reports a project carried out with first-year geography students undertaking physical geography fieldwork. An experiment within the context of fluvial studies tests the effectiveness of student learning using contrasting approaches based on analytical-prediction and descriptive-explanation. The results, based on marks analysis and a review of student feedback, indicate that in the short term the traditional descriptive-explanation approach is significantly more conducive to student learning than the analytical-predictive mode.
Physical geography, fieldwork, analytical-predictive, descriptive-explanation, student learning.
IAIN HAY, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
KEN FOOTE, University of Texas at Austin, USA
MICK HEALEY, Cheltenham & Gloucester College of Higher Education, Cheltenham, UK
A variety of challenges and opportunities associated with educational change, technological shifts and resource limitations make appropriate an international network for geography education. Such a network was established formally in Hawai'i during April 1999 under the name International Network for Learning and Teaching (INLT) Geography in Higher Education. INLT has the goal of improving the quality of learning and teaching of geography in higher education internationally. A number of INLT projects are outlined. These include: establishing a communication network; developing a database and clearinghouse; establishing links with other organisations; linking student projects internationally; and establishing a pilot project to explore learning and teaching strategies.
International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography, INLT, learning and teaching, communication, collaboration, resources, community.
DEREK REEVE, University of Huddersfield, UK
SUSAN HARDWICK, Southwest Texas State University, USA
KAREN KEMP, University of California at Berkeley, USA
TERESA PLOSZAJSKA, Liverpool Hope University College, UK
Increasing interest is being shown in developing distance learning courses within geography. Emerging educational technologies, based on the Internet, seemingly lie at the root of much of this interest. Experience of providing distance learning materials argues, however, that technology should not be the central concern for groups wishing to develop distance learning programmes. Other issues are more important. These include defining the model of distance learning they wish to develop, developing appropriate educational strategies, and establishing appropriate business and organisational models. Developing distance learning programmes that are intended to operate across national boundaries adds considerably to the challenges involved.
International distance learning, educational technologies, pedagogic issues, business models, institutional impacts, co-opetition.
BRIAN CHALKLEY, University of Plymouth, UK
ERIC J. FOURNIER, Samford University, USA
A. DAVID HILL, University of Colorado, USA
This paper address three questions: (1) What do we mean by ‘high-quality’ geography teaching in higher education? (2) How do we identify and evaluate it? and (3) To what extent are faculty and departments held accountable for the quality of their teaching? For anyone interested in geographical education, these questions are obviously of fundamental importance and yet curiously they are rarely asked, at least in this direct form. The reason may be that although these questions sound disarmingly simple to pose, they are considerably harder to answer. In this paper we make our task still more difficult by adding a fourth question: How do the answers to these questions vary between the UK and the USA? We provide an admittedly limited international synthesis by comparing and contrasting our interpretations from the UK and the USA. The paper closes by highlighting a series of issues that could form part of a continuing agenda for further, more detailed, comparative work in this area.
Teaching, assessment, accountability, quality.
KAREN NAIRN, University of Otago, New Zealand
DAVID HIGGITT, University of Durham, UK
DOMINIQUE VANNESTE, K.U. Leuven, Belgium
Fieldwork is a distinctive feature of geography in higher education and is therefore a subject that is likely to be scrutinised by an emerging international network. Originating from an Internet discussion, the paper considers the context of internationalism for the enhancement of fieldwork practices. These broadly comprise opportunities to debate and discuss pedagogic issues about fieldwork in an international forum and to facilitate more effective international fieldwork opportunities and exchange. In examining specific issues affecting internationalisation, attention is drawn to the frequently implicit assumptions about the value of fieldwork and the need to foster research on the delivery of fieldwork objectives.
Fieldwork, internationalisation, co-operation.
JOHN STAINFIELD, University of Plymouth, UK
PETER FISHER, University of Leicester, UK
BOB FORD, Westminster College of Salt Lake City, USA
MICHAEL SOLEM, University of Colorado, USA
Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) have a valuable role in supporting and enhancing real fieldwork and empowering students who are disadvantaged financially or physically. The development of good VFT and VFT tools is still in its infancy and full ‘virtuality’ is still many years away. This article traces the evolution of virtual field trips, outlining their advantages and disadvantages and provides a brief overview of the materials and approaches currently becoming available.
Virtual Field Trips, Virtual Field Course, ICT, international.
DAVID C. RICH, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
GEOFFREY ROBINSON, University of Leicester, UK
ROBERT S. BEDNARZ, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA
Collaboration may help secure many of the benefits of, and overcome many of the obstacles to, the transformation of learning and teaching that is currently in prospect, arising partly from the pervasive effects of information and communications technologies. Benefits accrue from interactions and sharing between students and between staff, and in developing teaching resources, creating learning-resources databases, and delivering courses. International collaboration has additional dimensions: larger scale and diversity of activity; wider cross-cultural considerations; and international student programmes. Major collaborative innovations face four groups of issues: challenges to established institutional structures and practices; re-allocations of funding; adherence to agreed technical standards; and legal impediments. These are more complex at the international level at which the International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography in Higher Education will operate.
Information and communications technologies (ICTs), collaborative teaching and learning, innovation, interaction, resource-based learning, International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography in Higher Education (INLT).
RICHARD LE HERON, University of Auckland, New Zealand
JAMES T. HATHAWAY, Slippery Rock University, USA
If there is a universal question that most academic geographers have been asked by students, it is “What can I do with geography?”. We argue in this paper that an important dimension of quality improvement in geography education is closing the gap between the perceived social usefulness of the subject (suggested by evidence to be relatively low) and the realities of what a subject offers as preparation for workplace roles (rated on evidence as relatively high). A potentially central part of the International Network in Learning and Teaching (INLT) Geography in Higher Education, therefore, is communicating information about skills for employment and life that are obtainable from geography-inspired instructional programmes. But behind the seemingly straightforward task of communicating a message is in fact a much more fundamental issue—getting to grips with socio-economic changes that are rewriting the nature and place of geographic learning and teaching. We suggest that positive outcomes from efforts to improve the quality of learning and teaching of geography will depend in part on strengthening and stabilising geography’s image, particularly in the eyes of school and university students. We conclude that initiatives, already underway in several countries to popularise the ‘skills profile’ of a geography education, offer a framework for reimaging the subject.
Geographical skills, employment skills, relevance, communicating, quality improvement.
SARAH BEDNARZ, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA
SUE BURKILL, College of St Mark and St John, Plymouth, UK
JOHN LIDSTONE, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
ELEANOR RAWLING, University of Oxford, UK
This paper argues that the development of the International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography (INLT) provides a timely opportunity to explore the benefits of greater links between the school and higher education sectors. The authors, geographers with professional and personal expertise in learning and teaching geography in both school and higher education contexts, address key aspects of school geography in order to reflect on existing linkages and possible future collaboration with higher education. Firstly, we examine existing school and higher education connections at the national level. We go on to review aspects of learning, teaching, and curriculum reform that have developed in schools in the UK, US and Australia in order to assess how these may be shared with higher education. Then we reflect on the need to strengthen links between geography and teacher education and education research. Finally, we discuss existing international networks and their implications for INLT. We conclude with some proposals for co-operation.
International Network for Learning and Teaching, school–higher education links, teacher education.
IFAN D. H. SHEPHERD, Middlesex University, UK
JANICE J. MONK, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
JOOS DROOGLEEVER FORTUIJN, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Key issues relating to the internationalisation of geography in higher education are explored. Drawing on past experience, critical questions are posed regarding the goals, ownership, management and operation of a proposed international network for teaching and learning in geography in higher education. It is argued that those developing the network must learn from the lessons of the past, both to avoid repeating avoidable mistakes and to ensure that the network successfully achieves its intended aims.
Internationalisation, geography, higher education, network.
Page created 20 July 2000